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BIOL120 Chapter Notes -Cryptogam, Sphagnum, Marchantiophyta

6 pages86 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL120
Professor
Simon Chuong

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Textbook Notes: Biol 120 – Plant Biology
“Introduction to Botany” by M. W. Nabors
Chapter 1: The World of Plants
Many plant bi-products (alkaloids), are used commercially,
as well as narcotics.
o caffeine, ephedrine, morphine, nicotine, cocaine, etc.
word botany, derived from Greek word meaning “plant”.
photosynthesis: the process by which plants and certain other
organisms use solar energy to usable energy by converting
CO2 and H2O into chemical energy.
o ~ ¼ of the 1.5m known species of living organisms are
photosynthetic.
o plants, bacteria, and algae carry out most of the
photosynthesis – but mostly plants.
biosphere: the thin layer of air, land, and water occupied by
living organisms
Photosynthesis supports life in 3 ways:
1. it produces almost all of the world’s oxygen.
2. almost all organisms attain their energy directly or
indirectly from photosynthesis: herbivores consume
plants, carnivores consume herbivores, etc.
3. The sugars produced via photosynthesis are the building
blocks of life. They are combined with minerals from the
soil to make a large variety of structural compounds.
Humans began to cultivate crops ~12-14kybp.
o agriculture became the foundation for human
civilization.
o began to select crops with specific features/benefits,
and increase yield.
o most human food focuses on corn, wheat, and rice.
o 80% of human caloric intake is provided by 6 crops:
wheat, rice, corn, potatoes, manioc/cassava, and sweet
potatoes.
o alcoholic drinks are also derived from fermented plant
material.
o dried herbs and spices used for flavoring.
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Plants are used for medicinal purposes.
o aspirin – similar to salicylic acid, found in tree bark.
o 1500’s - books documented practical uses for plants
and plant products.
o 1600’s – quinine powder from the bark of cinchona tree,
began to be used for malaria treatment.
o ephedrine – antihistamine produced by plant genus
Ephedra.
o ~25% of prescribed drugs contain at least one product
derived from plants.
Wood is used extensively in both developing and industrial
countries.
o most important use of fuel for cooking and eating, as
much of the world still does not have access to
electricity.
o fossil fuels are fossilized remains of plants.
o Wood is main use for construction material.
o paper is made from mostly the pulp of woody plants.
Conservation Biology: is the multidisciplinary field of
science that studies ways to counter the widespread
extinction of species and loss of habitats. It studies the
impact of human activity on all facets of the environment.
o ~ ½ of the world’s forests are gone.
o rainforests are cleared through “slash-and burn”
methods.
o clearings are used for agriculture until the soil is
depleted of nutrients, and then it is abandoned.
o estimates say that ~ 2700 species of organisms go
extinct each year.
o 20% of all tropical species became extinct between
1952-1992.
Plant biotechnology: focuses on efforts to obtain improved plants
and plant products using scientific techniques.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a self-replicating material present in
nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It
is the carrier of genetic information.
genes: a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring
and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
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