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Chapter 1

BIOL150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Ecosystem Ecology, Biocoenosis, Landscape Ecology


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL150
Professor
Rebecca Rooney
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1
-Ecology: a science, the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environment
-Environment of an organisms contains of the external factors that influence survival, reproduction, growth and includes
habitat (surroundings in which organism lives, physical location in time and space), abiotic physical factors, biotic
components
-Resources- environmental factor, abiotic or biotic, which are consumed by organisms, making them less available (food,
water)
-conditions-influence organisms but are not consumed (temp, precipitation, day length)
-hazards-factors that affect an organism negatively if they are present (substances or natural disasters)
-relationship includes an organisms interactions with physical surrounding and also species
-ultimate goal of all organisms: pass on their genes to future generations
-ecosystem: biotic community and its abiotic environment; organisms interact with each other and with their surroundings
in the ecosystem
Ecological hierarchy:
levels of ecology:
-individuals: organ system, organs, tissues, cells
-population: group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at a given time
-community: all populations of all species living and interacting within an ecosystem
-landscape: an area of land composed of a mix of ecosystems
-ecosystem: biotic community and its abiotic environment
-biomes: broad-scale regions in which the landscape is dominated by similar ecosystems
-biosphere: narrow interface at earth's surface that contains and supports life
-Within the biosphere, all ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic, are linked through their interactions with the
global abiotic spheres: 1) atmosphere, air surrounding earth 2) hydrosphere, water at earth's surface 3)
lithosphere, sold earth and soil
Scale: level of resolution in time and/or space over which a pattern or process is investigated
-autecology: studies organism's ability to survive, grow and reproduce in an environment, study of or an individual
organism
-behavioural ecology: studies animal behaviour due to ecological pressure
-Population ecology: studies population size and how it changes over time
-evolutionary ecology: studies changes in population genetics in response to evolutionary processes, particularly natural
selection
-community ecology: studies community patterns and the processes that contribute to them
-ecosystem ecology: studies ecosystem structure and function, stressing the flow of energy and nutrients through its abiotic
and biotic components
-landscape ecology: studies factors influencing the spatial extent and arrangement of interacting ecosystems and the
impacts of these patterns or such processes as dispersal of organisms, exchange of energy and nutrients, and spread of
disturbances such as fire or disease
-Global ecology: studies how he exchange of energy and mater between ecosystems and the atmosphere, hydrosphere,
and lithosphere influences global conditions
-conservation and restoration ecology: study factors affecting the conservation and restoration of species and/or
ecosystems
-All ecological studies have one thing in common: Scientific method
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