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BIOL 240 (8)
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BIOL 140 Module 9 Notes

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 240
Professor
Trevor Charles
Semester
Fall

Description
MODULE 9 Part A: Vibrio, Rickettsias, and Spirillia Vibrio and Photobacterium - Vibrio  important human pathogen - Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic rods - Found mainly in fresh-water or marine aquatic environment - Vibrio cholerae  human pathogen causing disease cholera - Some are not pathogenic and bioluminescent  luciferase enzyme Rickettsias - Obligate intracellular parasites - Infect both animals and humans - Closely related to mitochondria  replicate within host cell - Causes Rocky mountain spotter fever and Q fever - Restricted energy metabolism  glutamine and glutamate - Transmitted by arthropod vectors Spirillia - Spiral-shaped bacteria - Classified based on spiral cell shape - Diverse phylogeny Part B: Budding and Stalked Bacteria and Gliding Myxobacteria Budding and Stalked Bacteria - Grouped based on cell type or division - Unequal cell division – region where bud forms - Most alphas, but few beta and gamma Unequal Cell Division - Binary fission  elongation  cell division - Polar growth  one side stays same, one side has growth  two cells - Simple budding  smaller daughter bud  daughter cell and parental cell - Budding from hyphae  long skinny daughter bud  parental and daughter Gliding Myxobacteria - organisms that have complex behaviour and development - Communicate with each other and development is dependant on communication - Large chromosome - Simple vegetative cells have gliding motility - Found on solid surfaces - Lysing other types of bacterial cells to get nutrients - Differentiate and form fruiting bodies under starvation conditions - Myxospores within fruiting bodies resistant to dessication - Most are delta proteobacteria grouping - Fruiting bodies  aggregations of cells of different type - Classified based on structure of fruiting bodies Low GC and Gram Positive Bacteria Nonsporulating Overview - Two subgroups: high GC gram-positive and low GC gram-positive - GC ratio – amount of G and C in genome relative to A and T - Gram-positive: only organisms to make endospores - Endospore formation restricted to endospore forming, low GC, gram-positive bacteria - Nonsporulating, low GC, gram-positive bacteria include different types of organisms Staphylococcus and Micrococcus - Micrococcus: high GC organisms  included here by classical taxonomic methods - Aerobic organisms - Resistant to drying and high salt conditions - Pigmented  Staphylcocci found on skin Sarcina - Obligate anaerobes - Characteristic formation: cell division results in packets of eight cells which are joined - Acid tolerant - Found in human stomach - Cells found in clusters, short chains, packets, or pairs in low GC, GP cocci group - CFU (Colony Forming Unit): for organisms often made up of more than one cell Lactic Acid Bacteria - Produce lactic acid - Cocci in shape but some are rods - Lactic acid produced because no aerobic respira
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