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Unit 1 - Homeostasis - Full Textbook Notes

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 241
Heidi Engelhardt

Unit 1: Homeostasis and Cell-Cell Communication Chapter 1  Physiology: the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes  Emergent properties: properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on knowledge of the system’s individual components o it is not a property of any single component of the system, and it is greater than the simple sum of the system’s individual parts o result from complex, nonlinear interactions of the different components o ie: emotion, intelligence, etc.  Proteomics = the study of proteins in living organisms  Levels of organization: atoms < molecules < cells (the smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes) < tissue (collection of cells) < organs < organ system < organism < populations of one species < ecosystem of different species < biosphere  Cell membrane: lipid/protein barrier that separates cells from their external environment  There are 10 physiological organ systems in the human body: 1. Integumentary system: composed of the skin; forms a protective boundary that separates the body’s internal environment from the external environment 2. Musculoskeletal system: provides support and body movement  Includes: skeletal muscle and bones The following 4 systems exchange materials between the internal and external environments 3. Respiratory (pulmonary) system: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the internal and external environements  Includes: lungs and airways 4. Digestive (gastrointestinal) system: takes up nutrients and water and eliminates wastes  Includes: stomach, intestine, liver, and pancreas  Converts food into particles that can be transported into the body 5. Urinary (renal) system: removes excess water and waste material  Includes: kidneys and bladder 6. Reproductive system: produces eggs or sperm  Includes: testes, ovaries and uterus  Perpetuation of the species The following 4 systems extend throughout the whole body 7. Circulatory (cardiovascular) system: distributes material to all cell of the body by pumping blood through vessels  Includes: heart, blood vessels, and blood 8. Nervous system: coordinate body functions through electrical signals and release of regulatory molecules  Includes: brain and spinal cord 9. Endocrine system: coordinate body functions through the synthesis and release of regulatory molecules  Includes: thyroid gland, and adrenal gland 10. Immune system: protects the internal environment from foreign substances by intercepting material that enters through the intestines and lungs or through a break in the skin  Includes: thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes  Defense against foreign invaders  Function: the “way” of the system or event  Teleological Approach: thinking about a physiological event in terms of its adaptive significance (function)  Mechanisms: the “how” of a system  Mechanistic Approach: examines process  Homeostasis o “the concept of a relatively stable internal environment” Claude Bernard o Variables for Homeostasis:  Environmenta
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