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BIOL 273 (56)
Chapter 8

Textbook CHAPTER 8.docx

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BIOL 273
Dragana Miskovic

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CHAPTER 8: Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties Function of the Nervous System (pg 238) o Nervous system: a network of many nerve cells linked together in a highly organized manner to form the rapid control system of the body o Neurons: carry electrical signals rapidly and some carry it over long distances o Most have long extensions (processes) o Most release chemical signals neurotransmitters, into the extracellular fluid to communicate with neighbouring cells o Some are linked by gap junctions, allowing electrical signals to pass directly from cell to cell Organization of the Nervous System (pg 239) o Central Nervous System (CNS)  brain and spinal cord o Can initiate activity without sensory input o Does not need to create any measureable output to the efferent divisions o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  sensory (afferent neurons) and efferent neurons o Efferent Neurons  Somatic motor division: controls skeletal muscles  Autonomic division: controls smooth and cardiac muscles, exocrine glands, some endocrine glands, and some types of adipose tissue o Autonomic division  Sympathetic branches  Parasympathetic branches o Information flow: stimulus  sensor  input signal  integrating center  output signal  target  response o Enteric nervous system: is a network of neurons in the walls of the digestive tract Cells of the Nervous System o Primarily two cell types: neurons and glial cells (support cells) o The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system Neuron o Dendrites: long process that extend outward from the nerve cell that receives incoming signal.  Increases the surface area of a neu
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