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Unit 2 biol 273.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 273
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Semester
Spring

Description
UNIT2HomeostasisandControlChapter8NeuronsCellularandNetworkPropertiesbrainandspinalcordareintegratingcentersforhomeostasismovementmanyotherbodyfunctionsarethecontrolcenterofnervoussystemonervoussystemnetworkofbillionsortrillionsofnervecellslinkedtogetherinhighlyorganizedmannertoformrapidcontrolsystemofbodynervecellsorneuronscarryelectricalsignalsrapidlyandsometimesoverlongdistancesneuronsreleasechemicalsignalscalledneurotransmittersintoextracellularfluidtocommunicatewithneighbouringcellsneuronsarelinkedbygapjunctionsallowingelectricalsignalstopassdirectlyfromcelltocellemergentpropertiesarecomplexprocessesthatcannotbepredictedfromwhatweknowaboutpropertiesofindividualnervecellsandtheirspecificconnectionsOrganizationoftheNervousSystemnervoussystemcanbedividedintotwopartsoCentralnervoussystemCNSconsistsofbrainandspinalcordoPeripheralnervoussystemPNSconsistsofsensoryafferentneuronsandefferentneuronsoInfoflowsthroughnervoussystemusingthisbasicpatternStimulussensorinputsignalintegratingcenteroutputsignaltargetresponsesensoryreceptorscontinuouslymonitorconditionsininternalandexternalenvironmentsCNSneuronsintegrateinformationthatarrivesfromsensorydivisionofPNSanddeterminewhetheraresponseisneededIsaresponseisneededCNSsendsoutputsignalsthattravelthroughefferentneuronstotheirtargetsEfferentmotorneuronssubdivideintooSomaticmotordivisionControlsskeletalmusclesoAutonomicdivisionControlssmoothandcardiacmusclesexocrineglandssomeendocrineglandssometypesofadiposetissueCanbefurtherdividedintoSympatheticParasympatheticentericnervoussystemonetworkofneuronsinwallsofdigestivetractautonomicdivisionofPNSisalsocalledvisceralnervoussystembecauseitcontrolscontractionandsecretionininternalorgansCellsoftheNervousSystemnervoussystemiscomposedprimarilyoftwocelltypesobasicsignalingunitsofnervoussystemosupportcellsknownasglialcellsneuronscarryelectricalsignalsoneuronsarecellswithlongprocessesthatextendoutwardfromnervecellbodyusuallyclassifiedasdendritesreceiveincomingsignalsoraxonscarryoutgoinginformationneuronsthatlieentirelywithinCNSareknownasinterneuronsefferentneuronshaveenlargedaxonterminalsautonomicneuronshaveenlargeregionsalongaxoncalledvaricositiesaxonterminalsandvaricositiesstoreandreleaseneurotransmitterlongaxonsofafferentandefferentperipheralneuronsarebundledtogetherwithconnectivetissueintocordlikefiberscallednervesthatextendfromCNStotargetsofcomponentneuronsSensorynervesnervesthatcarryafferentsignalsonly
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