Theory of descent with modification (charles darwin: species are not immutable, but change through time, species are derived not independently, but from common (shared) ancestors, the earth and life are considerably more than 6000 years old. The theory of special creation and the theory of descent with modification make different assertions about whether species can change, where species came from and the age of the. Jean-baptiste lamark: all species, including humans, are derived by gradual evolution from other species, the continued existence of simple life forms is due to the spontaneous generation from. Inherent tendency for all organisms to progress from simple to complex form nonliving matter. Microevolution: small evolutionary changes in gene frequencies and trait distributions that occur within populations and species. Macroevolution: large evolutionary change, usually in morphology; typically refers to the evolution of differences among populations that warrant their placement in different genera or higher-level taxa: ex.