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Chapter 1

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 120
Professor
Carey Bissonnette
Semester
Fall

Description
Chemistry 120 Chapter 1 Section 1 Natural laws: concise statements, often in mathematical form , about natural phenomena (Copernicus’ law of earth) - depends on ability to explain/account for observations and to predict new phenomena - experiments verify the natural law Hypothesis: tentative explanation of a natural law, if survives testing by experiments, becomes theory Theory: model/way of looking at nature that can be used to explain natural laws and make further predictions about natural phenomena - the less assumptions the better Scientific method: combination of observation, experimentation, formulation of laws, hypotheses, and theories - look at chem 120 notes pg.2 Section 2 Matter: anything that occupies space and displays the properties of mass and inertia - even gases are matter, occupy space and have mass - sunlight isn’t, it’s a form of energy Composition: parts or components of a sample of matter and their relative proportions - water = hydrogen 11.9% and oxygen 88.81% Properties: qualities or attributes that we can use to distinguish one sample of matter from others - physical/chemical Physical properties ad physical changes Physical property: sample of matter displays without changing its composition - e.g. color, malleable copper, brittle sulfur - copper is good conductor of heat and electricity - physical change(appearance/properties), no composition change … e,g. liquid water to ice, H O 2 remains same Chemical properties and chemical change Chemical change/chemical reaction: one or more kinds of matter converted to new kinds of matter with different compositions - observe change in composition - e.g. burning of paper (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon Chemical property: ability/inability of a sample of matter to undergo a change in composition under stated conditions - zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid solution = hydrogen gas and a solution of zinc chloride in water - gold doesn’t - sodium reacts also with water - all three are malleable and food conductor of heat and electricity (physical properties) - different chem properties Section 3 - matter is made up of atoms (114 types) - each type is diff building block of a diff chemical element - about 90 elements c
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