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Chemistry (92)
CHEM 392A (8)
Chapter 4

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Richard Ennis

CHEMICAL BONDING 41 LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING Ionic bonding the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions in the crystal lattice of a salt Covalent bonding the sharing of valence electrons between atomic nuclei within a molecule of complex ion Atoms and ions are stable if they are like noble gas stable octetElectrons are most stable when pairedAtoms from chemical bonds to achieve a stable octet A stable octet may be achieved by exchange of electrons between mental and nonmetal A stable octet may be achieved by sharing electrons between nonmetals The sharing of electronscovalent bond 42 THE NATURE OF THE CHEMICAL BOND Valence bond theory atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals overlap to form a new orbital containing a pair of electrons of opposite spin Half filled orbital in one atom can overlap with another halffilled orbital of a second atom to form a new bonding orbitalThe new bonding orbital from the overlap of atomic orbitals contains a pair of electrons of opposite spinThe total number of electrons in the bonding orbital must be two When atoms bond they arrange themselves in space to achieve the maximum overlap of their halffilled obitals Maximum overlap produces a bonding orbital of lowest energy HYBRID ORBITALS Hybridization a theoretical process involving the combination of atomic orbitals to create a new set of orbitals that take part in covalent bonding Hybrid orbital an atomic orbital obtained by combining at least two different orbitals DOUBLE AND TRIPLE COVALENT BONDSSigmabond a bond created by the endtoend overlap of atomic orbitals pibond a bond created by sidebyside or parallel overlap of atomic orbitals usually p orbitals A double covalent bond contains a sigma bond and a pi bond Cindy Shen 1Page
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