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CHEM 392A (8)

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Richard Ennis

CHEMICAL SYSTEMS IN EQUILIBRIUM 71 DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IN CHEMICAL SYSTEMS Closed system a system may exchange energy but not matter with its surroundings Dynamic equilibrium a balance between forward and reverse processes occurring at the same rate Forward reaction in an equilibrium equation the lefttoright reactionReverse reaction right to left reactionSolubility equilibrium a dynamic equilibrium between a solute and a solvent in a saturated solution in a closed system Phase equilibrium between different physical states of a pure substance in a closed system ice over lake Chemical reaction equilibrium reactants and products of a chemical reaction are dynamic equilibrium SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIUM According to kinetic molecular theory particles are always moving and colliding even if no changes are observed Once ions entered dissolved state collisions continue When dissolved ions collide with crystal ions may break from crystal and enter the dissolved state or may form ionic bonds and crystallize out of solution At equilibrium rates of dissolution and crystallization are equal PHASE EQUILIBRIUMSuch as evaporationcondensation equilibriumLiquid molecules gain enough energy leaves the surface into gas phase as number of gas molecules increase more collision with the surface and lose energy Until two rates are equalSuch as solidliquid phase equilibriumCrushed ice in warm water ice melts faster than water freezes water temperature drops and the rate of melting decreases and rate of freezing increases until at a temperature of 0C the rates are equal CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRUIM Quantitative reaction all limiting reagent is consumed Complete reaction all reactants are converted to products Some reactions in open system are quantitative however when in a closed system they still remain when reaction appears to be over Reversible reaction a reaction that can achieve equilibrium in the forward and reverse direction In a closed system for a given overall system composition the same equilibrium concentrations are reached whether equilibrium is approached in the forward or reverse direction Cindy Shen 1Page
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