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Chemistry (92)
CHEM 392A (8)
Chapter 1

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 392A
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Summer

Description
OrganicCompounds11FunctionalGroupsOrganic family a group of organic compounds with common structural features that imparts characteristic physical properties and reactivity Functional group a structural arrangement of atoms that imparts particular characteristics to the molecule CarbonCarbonMultipleBondsStrong covalent bonddifficult to break Single bond not reactive double or triple are more readily brokenWhen C is bonded to a more electronegative atom it has a partial positive chargeincrease in polarity increases intermolecular attractionmelting points and boiling points increase If O or N are bonded to an H OH NHOH enables an organic molecule to form hydrogen bonds with other OH groupsincrease intermolecular attractionsmix more readily with polar solutes and solvents CO strong polar 4 electrons more attracted to Oraising boiling and melting pointsincrease solubility in polar solvents 12HydrocarbonsAlkyl group a hydrocarbon branch that is attached to the main structure Aromatic hydrocarbon a compound with a structure based on benzene a ring of 6 carbon atoms alternate between single and double bonds nnormal iso s secondary ttertiary for alkyl groups AromaticHydrocarbons1If an alkyl group is attached to a benzene ring the compound is named as an alkylbenzene The benzene ring could be a branch of a large molecule called phenyl group 2If more than one alkyl group is attached numbered using the lowest numbers possible Van der Waals forces the attraction of the electrons of one molecule for the nuclei of another molecule The main intermolecular interaction in hydrocarbons Weak forces molecules are readily separatedlow boiling and melting points of smaller molecules fewer electrons and weaker van der Waals forces compared to large molecules 13reactionsofhydrocarbonsGroupSymbolCindy Shen 1OrganicCompoundsAlkyl groupRR R etc R Rprime Rdouble primeHalogen atomXPhenyl group Substitution reaction hydrogen atom is replaced by other atoms reaction of alkane or aromatics with halogens to produce organic halides and hydrogen halidesalkyl halide an alkane with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with a halogen atom from a substitution reactionReactionsofAlkenesandAlkynes Addition reaction reaction of alkenes and alkynes in which a molecule ex hydrogen or halogen is added to a double or triple bond Atoms are added with no loss of hydrogen atoms Halogenation with Br2 or Cl2 Hydrogenation with H2 Hydrohalogenation with hydrogen halides hydration withH2OMarkovnikovsRuleFunctional group Prefix FFluoroClChloroBrBromoIIodoOHHydroxyNO2NitroNH2Amino When a hydrogen halide or water is added to an alkene or alkyne the hydrogen atom bonds to the carbon within the double bond that already has more hydrogen atoms the rich gets Cindy Shen 2richer
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