Chapter 8.docx

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University of Waterloo
Geography and Environmental Management
GEOG 101
Khan Rahman

Chapter 8 Defining nation-state • Nation: A group of people sharing a common culture and an attachment to some territory; a term difficult to define objectively Potentially applicable to all cultural groups but not all cultures aspire to be nations • State: An area with defined and internationally acknowledged boundaries; a political unit set of institutions, the most imp. being the potential means of violence and coercion (state also makes rules that govern life within its territoryencourages culture homogenization • Nation-state: A political unit that contains one principal national group that gives it its identity and define territory Clearly defined large group of people who self identify as a group (nation) and occupy a spatially defined territory with the necessary infrastructure and social and political institutions(a state) • Nation-state usually argue that: rise of a nation state 1. All members of the national group have the right to live within the borders of the state 2. It is not especially appropriate for members of other national groups to be resident in the state 3. The government of the state must be in the hands of the dominant cultural group Colonization,Imperialism Colonialism: the policy of a state or people seeking to establish and maintain authority over another state or people—whatever benefits central power(i.e economic activities) -The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. Explaining colonialism-“god glory and greed” -changes in Europe involving the prevailing feudal system + economic competition - before European colonialism, china + Islamic world were the two leading world areas— (gunpowder, mariners compass,printing,paper,horse harness + watermill invented in china) Global movements—result of; demands of econ growth,internal social and political complexity, turmoil + competition Colonialism—result of; ambition of individual officials, special business interests, the value of territory for strategic reasons,national prestige - Most imp reason = economic—colonial areas provided the raw materials needed for domestic industries and additional markets for industrial products Ended after world war 2 after defeat of japan and Italy (no longer colonial powers). British empire gained independence for 5years. Three European powers—France,Netherlands,Portugal tried to retain their colonies but couldn’t. Decolonization- the act of changing from colonial to independent status-Br colonies experience smooth transition to independence—almost all are a part of commonwealth(voluntary organization of 54 nations) - Some other former colonies, achieve independence only after civil wars;examples include Algeria (france), Mozambique (Portugal), and the congo region (Belgium) Effects of Colonialism -colonies resulted in net losses to the national economies of colonial powers—benefiting stock exchange and few individuals rather than state treasuries Benefits -Vast expanses of Canada, Australia & South Africa offered a way for Br to reduce population pressure - many areas have experiences massive population growth & associated economic problems b/c of colonial experience and related reductions in death rates imperialism had neg consequences on less powerful area Imperialism-one powerful state or territory seeks to control another,weaker territory (a relationship between states in which one is dominant over the other)1 central argument of the world systems theories -african and Asian countries became poor as a result of colonization (colonial powers advances at their expense) Dependency theory claims; -less dvlpd countries depend on their links with dominant countries for survival (links formed during colonial period)when occupation by imperialist powers led to the disintegration of indigenous cultures and formed the less dvlpd world Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces Centripetal forces: in political geo, forces that pull an area together as one unit to create a relatively stable state; in urban geo, forces that favour the concentration of urban land uses in a central area (bind state together) Centrifugal forces: in political geo, forces that make it difficult to bring an area together as an effective state, in urban geo forces that favour the decentralization of urban land uses(tear a state apart) forces are used to describe the stability or instability of states Centrifugal > Centripetal = unstable Centripetal > Centrifugal = stable Centrifugal forces i.e -internal divisions of language and religion that lead to a weak raison d’etre (reason of existence) / state identity -lack of long history in common (case for many former colonies) -state boundaries that are subject to dispute Centripetal forces i.e -presence of a powerful raison d’etre (reason of existence)/ clear and widely accepted state identity -long state history -state boundaries that are clearly delimited and accepted by others Both Forces are closely relatedthe presence of internal divisions indicates that groups do not share a long common history and that boundaries aren’t agreed upon Stability and Peace are closely related as are Instability and Conflict Stable and Unstable States Agreement (concordance) between nation (A group of ppl) & state (a political territory) is rare. -internal ethnic i.e linguistics/religion divisions often occur within a state (do not always threaten stability of state but sometimes they do) When some countries have internal divisions three situations may threaten the states stability 1. Secessionist movements arise within nations when multination states want to create their own separate states i.e Quebecois in Canada, Flemish & Walloons in Belgium, Welsh and Scottish in UK 2. ―Nations within‖ may want to link with members of the same nation in other states to creaste a new state i.e Basques in Spain & France, Kurds in Iraq & Iran & Syria & Turkey & Armenia & Azerbaijan 3. Irredentism involves one states seeking the return from another (usually neighbouring) state of people and or territory formerly belonging to it i.e in Balkan region, Middle East & sub-saharan Africa—regions where state boundaries were determined by other powers Irrendtism:the view held by one country that a minority living in an adjacent country rightfully belonds to the first country Rokkan identifies four functional prerequisites for the existence of a state 1.economy 2.political power 4.culture Devolution: a process of transferring power from central to regional or local levels of gov Core-periphery: the concept that states are often unequally divided between powerful cores and dependent peripheriesmain cause of social unrest -rich cores and poor peripheries often aggravate separatist tendencies in peripheral areas areas of unrest feel disadvantaged in terms of national identity + economic well being Internal division in Canada -provinces + territories have marked regional variations -plural city made up of aboriginals, two founding European cultures (eng & French) + many other national groups ^^ phys and human factors that have produces strong regional feelings + instability Forms of Government Capitalism-a social and economic system for the production of goods and services based on private enterprise an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit. Fundamental to capitalism = Democracy-a form of government involving free and fair elections, openness and accountability, civil and political rights and the rule of the law (rule by the people) Involves 5 features 1.regular free and fair elections to the principal political offices 2. universal suffrage(right to vote) 3.a gov that is open and accountable to the public 4.freedom for state citizens to organize and communicate with each other 5.a just society offering equal opportunity to all citizens Monarchy: the institution of rule over a state by the hereditary head of a family :monarchists are those who favour this system (rule by a single person. King/Queen) Oligarchy: rule by an elite group of people, typically wealthy (rule by a few) Dictatorship: an oppressive anti-democratic form of government in which the leader is often backed by the military (established and maintained by force and intimidation) Anarchism: political philosophy that rejects the state and argues that social order is possible without a state Federalism:a form of gov in which power and authority are divided between central and regional gov Provincial, Municipal Substate Governments 3 Levels of Centralization 1.Unitary: the ost centralized form of gov.. local gov are used by the central state to organize political hinterland 2.Federal: The lease centralized i.e Australia,Canada,and the USused to prevent 1 level of gov from dictating another 3.Compound Unitary:Midway between federal and unitary types, these systems devolve substantial powers to subnational gov. ( but less power in federal case)  two types -Type I :has established regional governments -Type II: involves small (usually peripheral) areas that maintain some distinct identity while retaining ties to the state In South Africa the gov is hoping that decentralization will help unify a country so long divided by apartheid legislation Voting and Place Class has an influence on voting (in br) – Labour Party : represents workers against capitalist employers and Conservative Party: representing the employers In US- Democrats: workers based Republicans: employer based This is less defined in Canada –NDP & Liberals are more oriented towards workers than Conservativeethnic and regional divisions play a more imp role in Canada 4 local influences on voting 1. Sectional effects: differences in local and regional political culture produce spatial variations in the support given to the various political parties 2. Environmental effects: labour party is more successful when unemployment is high -Candidate incumbency is another environmental factor: candidates who already hold their seats usually attract more votes than challengers 3. Campaign Effects: vote switching is more common in safer seats than longer established parties (conservative and labour) did better in the marginal constituencies 4. Contextual Effects: individuals may be influences in their voting decisions( as they are in behaviour) by their social contacts –friends,neighbours,relatives and fellow employees whom they are in contact. Emphasizes Social contacts here in in general accord with the symbolic interaction interpretation of culture Chapter 9 Distance Friction and Frictionless Distance Location of ppl, farms,towns,industries ect aren’t random but follow patterns - Sometimes phenomena of human geo are close to eachother and sometimes they are separated by great distance but ―spatial regularity” means we are able to make sense of locations i.e some places are better suitable for human life than others (global population distribution) ―a discipline in distance‖ (Wreford Watson)—ways human use space and distribute their activities as a way of adjusting to distance Distance is important b/v overcoming it requires effort (Zipf)—an individual’s entire behaviours is subject to minimizing of effort Principle of least effort: considered to be a guiding principal in human activities; for human geographers, refers to minimizing distances and related movements—suggests that location decisions are made to minimize the effort required to overcome what we call friction of distance---near things are more closely related than far things (applied to cultural regions) i.e of frictionless distance are email and internet (technology) but distance is still vital role (travelling to school, visiting friends, choosing which restaurant or theatre to go to) time space convergence: a decrease in the friction of distance between locations as a result of improvements in transportation and communication technologies Diffusion:the spread of any phenomenon over space and its growth through time (associated with cultural geo, spatial analysis and political economy) -Migration: the movement of people can be seen as a form of diffusion although terms used for more for innovation such as agricultural technique Innovation: the introduction of a new invention or idea, especially one that leads to change in human behaviour or production processes Diffusion research in cultural geo -research took place under general rubric of historical and cultural origins, cultural regions and cultural landscapes—associated with landscape schools typical studies focused on diffusion of particular material landscape features i.e housing types, agricultural fairs, covered bridges,places names & grid patter towns Usual approach - Find an origin
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