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Chapter 1

GEOG 101 Chapter 1: GEOG 101 – Chapter 1

Geography and Environmental Management
Course Code
Elijah Bisung

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GEOG 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Major Geographic Concepts
Geography: the study of the patters of pheoea o the earth’s surfae, the proesses that reate
those patterns, and the interaction between humans and the environment.
Phenomenon: any type of object, animate or inanimate, that can be sensed.
o Also refers to something that can be perceived or mentally constructed, such as an attitude or a
quality, even though it cannot be immediately sensed.
o Includes all sorts of attributes that can be considered geographically.
Can be physically present (bodies of water)
Attribute of human society (regions)
Attitude that exists in the mind.
a) Patterns and Process
Major concepts in geography can be distinguished by pattern and process.
o i.e. map of a city = spatial pattern
Pattern: The arrangement of various geographic phenomena at a given point in time.
Maps are a wonderful way to demonstrate the importance of pattern.
Process: the action that brings about a particular pattern.
o The evolution and development of something over time.
o Processes are not deterministic; more probabilistic.
Tend to result in a pattern.
o Some processes are multivariate
Involve several different factors.
o Also can be multiscalar
Take place at different spatial scales.
Cognate: a discipline that is in some way affiliated with a branch of human geography.
b) Absolute and Relative Location
The key geographical attribute of any place is its location on earth.
International date line: A line of longitude that is the other side of the prime meridian and is 180 degrees.
Prime meridian: the key reference line for longitude that is 0 degrees; the arbitrary line that crosses
through Greenwich, England, and connects the poles.
Location can be determined two ways:
o Absolute location dictates where each place exists on a reference system.
i.e. geographical coordinate system (latitude and longitude)
o Relative location has to do with its location compared to other places.
**Geographers and others tend to be more comfortable with this method**
Land-locked country: a country that does not have direct access to a sea.
Edge city: a district on the outskirts of a major city that, unlike traditional suburb, includes
many aspects of a central business district.
Agriculture hinterland: a farming area surrounding a town or city that provides it with food.
Cancer alley: a corridor alleged to have an above-average rate of cancer incidence tied to its
proximity to petrochemical plants.
c) Place and Space
Geographers are concerned with where, and where is often defined in terms of place.
o Place: a basic unit and key concept in geography that indicates where something exists.
o Points with zero dimensions.
o Sense of place: place is more than simply a set of attributes but something that connotes a
whole set of meanings, particularly to the people who know the placer well.
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