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Chapter 3

GEOG101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Total Fertility Rate, Infant Mortality, Neolithic Revolution

Geography and Environmental Management
Course Code
Elijah Bisung

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Geog 101- Textbook Readings (Midterm #2)
Chapter 3: Population
3A- Population Growth in the Past
Population growth was slow up until the 1800s, it was around 1 billion at that
time, 200 years later, now its 7 billion
oWhy?- Two Major Revolutions
Neolithic Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Neolithic Revolution (“New stone age”)
oDomestication of agriculture and livestock
When people gave up hunting and gathering to settle down in one
location as farmers
Would plant wheat and grain crops and settle there for an
entire year
First locations of domesticated plants were probably in the “Fertile
Crescent” of the Middle East, in what is now primarily Iraw and
Syria, and in Iran
Stable food supply= increase in human populations
From 10,000 BCE- 1750, world’s population grew slowly but steadily
oPlagues often caused significant reductions in human numbers
Ex: Black Death: Devastated Europe, southwest Asia, and much of
the rest of Eurasia in the 1300s (Europe- close to 50% of
population died)
Bacterium Yersinia pestis
Widespread in rats and fleas
Industrial Revolution (Mid-Eighteenth century)
oInnovations in textile machinery made factories possible, and farming
innovations allowed or forced many farmers and rural workers to give up
the agricultural life for factory work
Along with this revolution came innovations in science and public
Sophisticated water and sewer systems, improved medical
techniques, and better prevention of famines caused a significant
drop in death rates in industrialized areas
Decrease in mortality caused a global rise in population
(19th and 20th centuary)
Improvements in Sanitation & Medicine
20th Centaury- Significant increase in life expectancies
oDue to all the advancements
o (1900: 45-50 years, 1950: 75 years +) – American/European
oMuch of these gains were made through reductions in infant mortality

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3B- 3D World Population Today: The Americas
Density: total number of people living in a specific area
Arithmetic (Crude) Density: Population of a region or country divided by its
total area (People/km2)
oQuick and Easy way to calculate densities
oWorld has about 45-50 people per square kilometer of land, but varies
between countries
Many countries have a lot of land that humans cannot inhabit due to conditions
(dryness, cold, wet, too many mountains), therefore another type of density is
Physiological (Ecological) Density: number of people per unit of arable (i.e.,
farmable) land (People/km2 of farmland)
oThese #’s are higher than arithmetic densities for many countries
oIndia has an arithmetic density of about 360 people per square kilometer
but has a physiologic density of over 4000 per square kilometer
If India had no access to outside food sources, it would have to
support over 4,000 people on each square kilometer of farmland
As cities grow around the world, the amount of arable land declines and
physiologic densities go up
Physiological density is more important that Arithmetic density because you can
see if the physiological density can support the population there
Some important facts from the diagrams:
oEurope is one of the most densely population regions in the world
oDry areas/ Deserts: low population density (ex. Sahara desert)
oRainforests environments around the world have low population density’s
3E- The Basic Demographic Equation and Fertility
Population of an area, such as country, state, or city, can be expressed by the
following equation: Basic demographic equation
oFuture Population= current population + births - deaths + immigrants –
o(Birth-deaths)= Natural increase, (Immigrants-emigrants)= Net migration
Fertility: refers to how many children are born in a given time period
oCrude Birth Rate (CBR): # of children born per 1,000 people in a
population during a one-year period
Globally ranges from 7 to 48 per 1,000 people
oTotal fertility rate (TFR): # of children, on average, a woman can expect to
have in her lifetime, given the current fertility rates
What does the TFR rate have to be for the population to stay the same?
o= 2.0, would make sense because if two parents have two children, the
population will stay the same, however some children do not live to
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