READINGS FOR HLTH 102
Topic 1 - How Should We Define Health?
WHO's definition of health can be counterproductive since, now, population's age and pattern
of illness is changing.
thresholds for intervention tend to be lowered (i.e. BP, lipids, sugar)
too much emphasis on physical wellbeing --> leads to more people being eligible for screening,
when in reality, only 1 person would benefit. This can result in higher levels of medical
dependency and risk
"Complete" is neither operational nor measurable
The formulation of health should be the ability to adapt and to self manage!
Topic 2 - How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease
there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke
Inhaling causes cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, through DNA damage,
inflammation, and oxidative stress.
risk and severity related to the duration and level of exposure
Sustained use and long-term exposures to tobacco smoke are due to the powerfully addicting
effects of tobacco products, which are mediated by diverse actions of nicotine and perhaps
other compounds, at multiple types of nicotinic receptors in the brain.
Low levels of exposure (second hand), lead to a rapid increase in endothelial dysfunction and
inflammation, which are implicated in acute cardiovascular events and thrombosis.
no evidence that product modification lower emissions
Topic 3 - Risks Associated with Alcohol use and Alcoholism
increased health risks (both physical and mental)
To reduce alcohol’s impact on the burden of disease as well as on other social, legal, and
monetary costs, limit consumption to low-risk drinking levels among those who do
Topic 4 - Obesity in Canada
Several provinces had increased obesity rates from 2003 to 2007, while others are leveling off,
or decreased slightly in 2007
Factors affecting obesity: age, sex, income, place of residence
self-reported obesity rates for men and women increase until age 65, after which they start to
Rates are slighter lower for women, except those aged 75+
Higher income women --> lower obesity rates
Measured rates for obesity in youth was higher than self-reported rates; it's likely that the
actual prevalence of adolescent obesity is much higher than suggested by self-reported rates Childhood obesity: increases risk of obesity in adulthood, early development of serious health
conditions (i.e. type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and high