Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Health (133)
HLTH 220 (15)

GERON/HLTH220: Textbook Notes for Lecture 4 and 5

5 Pages
Unlock Document

HLTH 220
Linda Jessup

Lecture 4 –Lifespan Development and Health Physical Development Textbook: Lifespan Development: A Topical Approach 2 Edition nd Chapter 3: Modules 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 3.1. Physical Growth and Change - What physical changes are typical of the major periods of human development, and what factors influence their growth? Physical Growth in Infancy - Changes in height and weight and less apparent changes in the nervous system - Increasingly stable patterns in such basic activities as sleeping, eating, and attending to the world Rapid Advances - Infants grow rapidly over their first two years. o 5 months, birth weight doubles o 12 months, birth weight triples and is almost one foot tall Integrating Body Systems: The Life Cycles of Infancy - Most basic activities are controlled by a variety of bodily systems; takes time for infants to integrate the separate behaviours to a behavioural pattern Rhythms and States - Behaviour becomes integrated is through the development of various rhythms, repetitive, cyclical patterns of behaviour - State, the degree of awareness to both internal and external stimulation: levels of wakeful behaviours, such as alertness, fussing, and crying and different levels of sleep as well Sleep: Perchance to Dream - Infant sleep comes in spurts of around two hours, followed by periods of wakefulness because they are “out-of-sync” from the world - Gradually settle into a more adult-like pattern - ½ of infant sleep is REM sleep, not necessarily dreaming but auto stimulation of nervous systems Physical Growth in Toddler Years - Worrying about colds and other illnesses, what and how much a child eats, quiet time and bedtime - Rapid advances in physical abilities: changes they undergo in their size, shape and physical abilities - Boys start becoming taller and heavier, on average, than girls Changes in Body Shape and Structure - Muscle size increases, and children grow stronger. Bones become sturdier, and the sense organs continue to develop Economic Factors - Economics  better nutrition and health care typically received by children Physical Growth in Middle Childhood and Adolescence Height and Weight Changes - Two-three inches year - Only period in lie when girls ten to be taller than boys - “baby fat” disappears, and become more muscular and their strength increases Cultural Patterns of Growth - Inadequate nutrition and disease  children who are shorter and weight less - Severe stress –brought on by factors such as parental conflict or alcoholism –can affect the pituitary gland, thereby affecting growth Physical Growth in Adolescence - Some cultures symbolically celebrating the physical changes that transform a child’s body into an adult body capable of reproduction Rapidly Maturing Adolescent - Grow several inches as they are transformed - Puberty, the period when the sexual organs mature o Menarche, the onset of menstruation and probably the most obvious sign of puberty in girls  breasts around age 10, pubic hair at 11, and underarm hair 2 years later o Spermarche, boy’s first ejaculation  Prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge, penis and scrotum accelerates at around 12 - Primary sex characteristics are associated with the development of the organs and body structure related directly to reproduction - Secondary sex characteristics are the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly - Hormones that trigger puberty may also lead to rapid mood swings. Boys of anger and annoyance; depression and anger in girls Physical Growth in Adulthood - Senescence, the natural physical decline brought about by increasing age o Affected by diet, excise, smoking and alcohol or drug use - Western cultures that highly value a youthful appearance - Emotional reactions depend on self-concepts: the mirror reveals signal aging and mortality as well as a loss of physical attractiveness (double standard for women and appearances) Late Adulthood - Primary aging, senescence, involves universal and irreversible changes due to genetic programming - Secondary aging, encompasses changes that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual factors which are not inevitable - people may become shorter  osteoporosis Internal Aging - Brain becomes smaller and lighter using less oxygen, glucose, and blood flow. - Heart’s diminished ability to pump blood through hardening and shrinking blood vessels - Digestive system produces less digestive juices - Muscle fibers decrease both in size and in amount The Myth and Reality of Aging - Old age used to be equated with loss of brain cells, intellectual capabilities, energy, and sex drive - Gerontologists displacing this myth - No longer define old age by chronological years alone. Functional ages! o the young old (65-74) are healthy and active, the old old (75-84) have some health problems and difficulties with daily activities and the oldest old (85+) are fail and need care 3.2. Brain Growth and Motor Development - How does the brain grow, and how do environmental factors affect brain growth? - What reflexes do infants and young children possess, and what function do they serve? - How do gross and find motor skills change as people grow older? The Nervous System and Brain: Making Connections - brain grows at a faster rate than any other part of the body because of increase in the number of interconnections among cells, communication between neurons o 2 year olds have ¾ size and weight of an adult brain; 5 years have 90% of an adult brain - In adulthood a single neuron is likely to have a minimum of 5000 connections to other neurons or other body parts - “pruning down” unnecessary neurons - Axons of neurons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that, like the insulation on an electrical wire, pro
More Less

Related notes for HLTH 220

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.