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GERON/HLTH220: Textbook Notes for Lecture 4 and 5

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Department
Health
Course
HLTH 220
Professor
Linda Jessup
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 4 –Lifespan Development and Health Physical Development Textbook: Lifespan Development: A Topical Approach 2 Edition nd Chapter 3: Modules 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 3.1. Physical Growth and Change - What physical changes are typical of the major periods of human development, and what factors influence their growth? Physical Growth in Infancy - Changes in height and weight and less apparent changes in the nervous system - Increasingly stable patterns in such basic activities as sleeping, eating, and attending to the world Rapid Advances - Infants grow rapidly over their first two years. o 5 months, birth weight doubles o 12 months, birth weight triples and is almost one foot tall Integrating Body Systems: The Life Cycles of Infancy - Most basic activities are controlled by a variety of bodily systems; takes time for infants to integrate the separate behaviours to a behavioural pattern Rhythms and States - Behaviour becomes integrated is through the development of various rhythms, repetitive, cyclical patterns of behaviour - State, the degree of awareness to both internal and external stimulation: levels of wakeful behaviours, such as alertness, fussing, and crying and different levels of sleep as well Sleep: Perchance to Dream - Infant sleep comes in spurts of around two hours, followed by periods of wakefulness because they are “out-of-sync” from the world - Gradually settle into a more adult-like pattern - ½ of infant sleep is REM sleep, not necessarily dreaming but auto stimulation of nervous systems Physical Growth in Toddler Years - Worrying about colds and other illnesses, what and how much a child eats, quiet time and bedtime - Rapid advances in physical abilities: changes they undergo in their size, shape and physical abilities - Boys start becoming taller and heavier, on average, than girls Changes in Body Shape and Structure - Muscle size increases, and children grow stronger. Bones become sturdier, and the sense organs continue to develop Economic Factors - Economics  better nutrition and health care typically received by children Physical Growth in Middle Childhood and Adolescence Height and Weight Changes - Two-three inches year - Only period in lie when girls ten to be taller than boys - “baby fat” disappears, and become more muscular and their strength increases Cultural Patterns of Growth - Inadequate nutrition and disease  children who are shorter and weight less - Severe stress –brought on by factors such as parental conflict or alcoholism –can affect the pituitary gland, thereby affecting growth Physical Growth in Adolescence - Some cultures symbolically celebrating the physical changes that transform a child’s body into an adult body capable of reproduction Rapidly Maturing Adolescent - Grow several inches as they are transformed - Puberty, the period when the sexual organs mature o Menarche, the onset of menstruation and probably the most obvious sign of puberty in girls  breasts around age 10, pubic hair at 11, and underarm hair 2 years later o Spermarche, boy’s first ejaculation  Prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge, penis and scrotum accelerates at around 12 - Primary sex characteristics are associated with the development of the organs and body structure related directly to reproduction - Secondary sex characteristics are the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly - Hormones that trigger puberty may also lead to rapid mood swings. Boys of anger and annoyance; depression and anger in girls Physical Growth in Adulthood - Senescence, the natural physical decline brought about by increasing age o Affected by diet, excise, smoking and alcohol or drug use - Western cultures that highly value a youthful appearance - Emotional reactions depend on self-concepts: the mirror reveals signal aging and mortality as well as a loss of physical attractiveness (double standard for women and appearances) Late Adulthood - Primary aging, senescence, involves universal and irreversible changes due to genetic programming - Secondary aging, encompasses changes that are due to illness, health habits, and other individual factors which are not inevitable - people may become shorter  osteoporosis Internal Aging - Brain becomes smaller and lighter using less oxygen, glucose, and blood flow. - Heart’s diminished ability to pump blood through hardening and shrinking blood vessels - Digestive system produces less digestive juices - Muscle fibers decrease both in size and in amount The Myth and Reality of Aging - Old age used to be equated with loss of brain cells, intellectual capabilities, energy, and sex drive - Gerontologists displacing this myth - No longer define old age by chronological years alone. Functional ages! o the young old (65-74) are healthy and active, the old old (75-84) have some health problems and difficulties with daily activities and the oldest old (85+) are fail and need care 3.2. Brain Growth and Motor Development - How does the brain grow, and how do environmental factors affect brain growth? - What reflexes do infants and young children possess, and what function do they serve? - How do gross and find motor skills change as people grow older? The Nervous System and Brain: Making Connections - brain grows at a faster rate than any other part of the body because of increase in the number of interconnections among cells, communication between neurons o 2 year olds have ¾ size and weight of an adult brain; 5 years have 90% of an adult brain - In adulthood a single neuron is likely to have a minimum of 5000 connections to other neurons or other body parts - “pruning down” unnecessary neurons - Axons of neurons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that, like the insulation on an electrical wire, pro
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