chapter 4 Organizing work for Strategic Success.docx

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University of Waterloo
Human Resources Management
HRM 200
Katrina Di Gravio

Designing and Analyzing Jobs Chapter 4 Organizing work for Strategic Success  Relationship between people and tasks must be structured for efficiency and effectivity Organizational Structure  Formal relationships among jobs in an organization  Organization chart used to depict structure  Designing organization involves choosing structure that’s appropriate, given strategic goals  The flat Or chart removed middle layer of management (senior, managers, supervisors) o Geared for team organizational and customer service  The matrix chart is used for cross management Job Design  Process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform specific job  Organization’s strategy and structure influences way that it’s designed  Bureaucratic organizations o Generally highly specialized because of hierarchical division of labour  Job consists of group of related activities and duties held buy single employee or number of incumbents o Clear and distinct from other jobs o Involve natural units of work that are similar and related o Minimizes conflicts and enhance performance  Position o Collection of tasks / responsibilities performed by one person Job Specialization  Job: outgrowth of efficiency demands of industrial revolution  There’s a positive correlation between job specialization and productivity and efficiency  Work simplification o Approach to job design involving assigning most administrative aspects of work to supervisors and managers, while giving lower level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management o Can increase operating efficiency in stable environment and be very appropriate in settings  Industrial engineering o Concerned with analyzing work methods o Making work cycles more efficient by modification, combining, rearranging or eliminating tasks o Establishing time standards Behavioural Aspects of Job Design  Job enlargement (horizontal loading) o Relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at same level of responsibility to increase number of tasks they have to perform  Job rotation moves employees from one job to another for a satisfying and rewarding job  Job Enrichment o Efforts that makes employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties  Increasing level of difficulty and responsibility of the job  Assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes  Providing feedback about individuals or unit job performance directly to employees  Adding new tasks requiring training, thereby providing opportunity for growth Designing and Analyzing Jobs Chapter 4  Assigning individuals entire tasks or responsibility for performing whole job rather than parts o Not always best approach o More successful in some jobs and settings than other o Job design always ail when employees lack skills for the job Team based job design  Focus on giving a team whole and meaningful piece of work to do  Empowered to decide among themselves how to accomplish work  Often cross trained and rotated through different tasks  Best suited for flat and matrix organizations Ergonomic Aspects  Integrate Physical needs of workers into the job design  Adapt entire job system (work, environment, machines, equipment, processes) to match human characteristics  Fitting the tasks to the worker  Adjustable work stations, where to place the water cooler, repetitive lifting, lighting and noise  Predictable, positive relationships exist among satisfaction with physical environment = higher job satisfaction Increasing job Flexibility  Cognitively complex, more team based, more dependent on social skills and technological competence, time pressured, mobile, and less dependent on geography  Focus on personal competencies and skills in job analysis, hiring, compensation management Job Analysis   Procedure for determining tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job and the human attributes (knowledge, skills, abilities) required to perform it  Most important aspect of HR - cornerstone  Without the KSA’s , the person may have workplace disabilities, not get the job, etc  Human Resource planning o Knowing actual requirements essential for planning future staffing needs  Recruitment and Selection o Decide sort of person to recruit and hire o Identify bona fide occupational requirements; ensure all activities based on these requirements  Compensation o Determining relative value of and appropriate compensation for each job o Evaluation based on required skills, physical and mental demands, responsibilities and work conditions o Relative value is main key factors to determine appropriate compensation and justify pay differences  Performance Appraisal o Criteria sued to assess employee performance must relate to duties and responsibilities through job analysis  Labour Relations o Unionized environment  Generally subject to union approval before being finalized Designing and Analyzing Jobs Chapter 4  Basis for classifying jobs and bargaining over wages, performance criteria, working conditions  Training, Development, and Career Management o Compare KSA, managers can determine gaps requiring training programs o Accurate info about jobs = preparation for future advancement by identifying gaps between current KSAs and specified for future jobs  Job Design o Ensure all duties having to be done are assigned and identifies overlap areas Steps in Job analysis 1. Identify use of info a. Determines types of data to be collected and techniques used i. Interviewing, numerical ratings 2. Review relevant background information a. Process chart – diagram showing flow of inputs to and outputs from job under study 3. Select representative positions and jobs to be analyzed 4. Analyze jobs a. Collect data on job activities, required behaviours, working conditions, human traits and abilities needed to perform 5. Review info with job incumbents a. Verified with workers performing the job and immediate supervisor b. Help confirm info is factually correct and complete 6. Develop job description and job specification (concrete products of job analysis) Methods of collecting Job Analysis Information – Qualitative  Interviews (individual, group, supervisory) o Group interview used when large number of employees are performing same work  Quick and inexpensive  Immediate supervisor attends group session / supervisors interviewed separately to get person’s perspective on duties and responsibilities o Verbal communication skills o Review supervisors
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