CHAPTER 1 â CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
â Discipline â unique way of approaching, and achieving, the advance of human
knowledge and it comes with its own particular set of theories.
â Being interdisciplinary means using the tools and insights of various disciplines,
bot to eliminate narrow-mindedness, and to arrive at a more thorough
appreciation of the subject matter.
â International studies involves studying things between nations, specifically by
looking at how different countries relate to, and deal with each other (culturally,
socially, economically â trade, militarily).
â What is a country?
o Earth is made of 211 countries.
o There are 3 parts of the world that have not been claimed by any country:
â¢ 1959 â Antarctica treaty was signed declaring it a common
unowned public space purely for scientific research.
â¢ Treaty respected because:
o It is extremely inhospitable
o Extremely remote from the population ï expensive to go
o No valuable natural resources
2. High seas
â¢ Natural jurisdiction over the water is until 200km from the shore;
after which the country has no ownership and is considered the
high seas (open and unowned).
â¢ It can be a bad thing because e.g., the pacific patch (floating pile
of garbage), is not the responsibility of any country thus no one
wants to clean it up as it is in the high seas.
3. Atmospheric near-space
â¢ End of atmosphere and outer space.
â¢ Countries can own upwards to about 20 km
Territory and resources
â Countries have 4 basic elements:
o Territories (natural resources) â water, oil, land, food, timber, gold,
o Population (people) â they may be highly unified and quite similar or be a
collection of highly diverse groups and individuals (immigrant societies).
o Culture (high and low) â way of life; how people think, live and behave.
ï§ High ï best that this culture has to offer; high quality; often
associated with national identity.
â¢ Stuff thatâs in museums and/or
â¢ Stuff that we teach our children CHAPTER 1 â CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
ï§ Low ï behavior that you see every day in that society e.g., what
people eat, drink, dress, language, media (forms of
communication), beliefs (moral, political, religious etc.).
ï§ Historically, religion has played a big role in determining the
o State (government)
ï§ State actors (national governments)
â¢ Make the rules (legislation), and enforce them (executive
â¢ Defend society from domestic criminals and foreign
â¢ Control membership (immigration) and access (border)
â¢ Decide what is legal and what is not
â¢ Set the ground rules for everything in society
â¢ Massive financial resources via taxation
â¢ Represent that society to the rest of the world
â¢ Decide war and peace; economic and social policies; build
infrastructure; respond to public emergencies: huge impact
on our lives.
o Non-state actors ï non-governmental groupings or institutions; are
becoming more powerful
ï§ MNCs â Primarily for profit
ï§ NGOs â Not for profit
ï§ Social movements (e.g., Occupy) â big movements such as
ï§ Interest groups â Like social movements but tend to focus
narrowly on one issue; very specific. Usually focus is on legal
change. They target the state and they want to make sure that the
state advances their interest e.g., National Rifle Association.
ï§ Media (traditional and new)
ï§ Churches/religious organizations
ï§ Armed forces
â¢ Terrorist groups â armed group that deliberately uses
violence against civilian populations as opposed to military
targets, in hopes that the resulting spread of fear amongst
the people will further a narrow political agenda that the
â¢ Insurgent forces â revolutionary armed groups committed
to the violent overthrow of their own government and start
a civil war.
â¢ Private militia â armed groups not part of any official
military e.g., in Darfur region in Sudan to ethnically cleanse
the black Sudanese.
â¢ PMCs (Private Military Companies)/mercenaries â groups
that fight for money e.g., Blackwater. CHAPTER 1 â CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
The state: government and its powers
â State â government of a country.
â State formation
How did the earth come to be 211 countries?
o State formation occurs in Europe then spreads to the rest of the world
through European colonialism and imperialism.
o The modern nation-state is half-way between tiny (Greek) city state and
giant cosmopolitan (Roman) empire.
ï§ Because it was found that neither was sustainable.
â¢ Greek city-state was too small and vulnerable.
o No economies of scale.
o Its small size also gave it a cultural identity.
ï§ Athens was the center of cultural science
ï§ Sparta known for war/army
ï§ Delphi known for religious oracles
â¢ Roman Empire was too big and came into contact with
many rival groups.
â System of governance forged in military conquest.
The essence of empires:
â Metropole (mother city/hub of empire/mother country) is in the middle; colonies
â Colonies â these are the conquered and subjected lands, the dependencies on
the periphery of the empire. The metropole conquers the colony by force.
â From colonies ï metropole
o Relationship represents (abstractly):
ï§ Defeat, subjection, extraction, obedience
o Relationship entails (concretely):
ï§ Political allegiance, taxes, brain drain of best and brightest, natural
â From metropole ï colonies
o Relationship entrails concretely
ï§ Military force, political leadership, investment, some citizenship
o Relationship represents (abstractly)
ï§ Conquest, domination, protection, exploitation
Timeline of development of the world.
o Greeks â West/Europe beings
ï§ Then gets attacked by the Macedonians, then Persians and finally
by the Romans.
o Roman Empire (500BC-500AD) â 1000 years
ï§ Roman Empire collapsed because it had grown too large to
govern efficiently, and its governors were too corrupt. CHAPTER 1 â CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
ï§ Only institution to survive the collapse of Roman civilization in the
west as the Roman Catholic Church.
o Dark ages (500-1000AD)
ï§ Other religions came into the picture â Protestant Reformation
â¢ When the church refused their demands, they broke away
and formed rival Christian churches (Anglican, Lutheran)
ï§ Thirty Years War (1618-48) â resulted in the death of 1/3 of the
German population ï the worst religious war of that time.
â¢ Treaty of Westphalia (1648) was signed to bring peace.
o Agreement to lay down arms, to live and let live,
and represents a kind of deal known as a modus
vivendi, meaning something we can live with, even
if itâs not our preference.
â¢ Led to the start of European interstate system
o Medieval and early modern (1000-1500AD)
o Rise of modern-state of Europe e.g., England, Spain, France
ï§ Big so enjoys economies of scale
ï§ Can protect itself from invasion
ï§ Not so big that it lacks internal coherence
ï§ Unified culture â education, national languages, legal system
o 1492 â Empire re-born (essentially through European colonialism and
ï§ Columbus discovers New World that proved to be irresistible to
the modern states.
ï§ The land, natural resources and number of souls to convert to
Christianity results in the European colonialism and imperialism.
â¢ European imperialism had a profound effect on world
o Inter-state system was created
o Much of the world was used as a vast resource
base for Europe with people, money and natural
commodities flowing from around the world into the
heart of European capitals.
ï§ Use the Roman Empireâs template for empire to apply when they
go to colonize.
ï§ For 500 years, 8 countries come to rule the rest of the world
(1492-1945) ï hey-dey of European Imperialism
â¢ Ends in 1945 because Europe is destroyed and they
cannot afford empires and they fall apart.
â¢ Decolonization began 1945-1994.
o WWI (1914-18)
ï§ Allies â France, UK, Russia
â¢ In 1917, Russia left war because of their communist
revolution. CHAPTER 1 â CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
â¢ US replaced them in the war then; and eventually won the
war for them.
ï§ Other side â Germans, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman empire
ï§ War began because the Germans wanted to challenge UK for
hegemony in Europe.
ï§ When the war ended, allies broke down the Ottoman Empire
which ruled MENA (Middle East North Africa), and that started
Western involvement in the Middle East.
â¢ Treaty of Versailles ï make Germany pay reparations fines
for starting the war. Bankrupt Germany in less than 10
â¢ Leads to economic chaos.