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Chapter 1


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International Studies
Brian Orend

CHAPTER 1 – CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS Introduction − Discipline – unique way of approaching, and achieving, the advance of human knowledge and it comes with its own particular set of theories. − Being interdisciplinary means using the tools and insights of various disciplines, bot to eliminate narrow-mindedness, and to arrive at a more thorough appreciation of the subject matter. Countries − International studies involves studying things between nations, specifically by looking at how different countries relate to, and deal with each other (culturally, socially, economically – trade, militarily). − What is a country? o Earth is made of 211 countries. o There are 3 parts of the world that have not been claimed by any country: 1. Antarctica • 1959 – Antarctica treaty was signed declaring it a common unowned public space purely for scientific research. • Treaty respected because: o It is extremely inhospitable o Extremely remote from the population  expensive to go there. o No valuable natural resources 2. High seas • Natural jurisdiction over the water is until 200km from the shore; after which the country has no ownership and is considered the high seas (open and unowned). • It can be a bad thing because e.g., the pacific patch (floating pile of garbage), is not the responsibility of any country thus no one wants to clean it up as it is in the high seas. 3. Atmospheric near-space • End of atmosphere and outer space. • Countries can own upwards to about 20 km Territory and resources − Countries have 4 basic elements: o Territories (natural resources) – water, oil, land, food, timber, gold, animals o Population (people) – they may be highly unified and quite similar or be a collection of highly diverse groups and individuals (immigrant societies). o Culture (high and low) – way of life; how people think, live and behave.  High  best that this culture has to offer; high quality; often associated with national identity. • Stuff that’s in museums and/or • Stuff that we teach our children CHAPTER 1 – CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS  Low  behavior that you see every day in that society e.g., what people eat, drink, dress, language, media (forms of communication), beliefs (moral, political, religious etc.).  Historically, religion has played a big role in determining the culture. o State (government)  State actors (national governments) • Make the rules (legislation), and enforce them (executive power) • Defend society from domestic criminals and foreign invaders • Control membership (immigration) and access (border) • Decide what is legal and what is not • Set the ground rules for everything in society • Massive financial resources via taxation • Represent that society to the rest of the world • Decide war and peace; economic and social policies; build infrastructure; respond to public emergencies: huge impact on our lives. o Non-state actors  non-governmental groupings or institutions; are becoming more powerful  MNCs – Primarily for profit  NGOs – Not for profit  Social movements (e.g., Occupy) – big movements such as environmentalists.  Interest groups – Like social movements but tend to focus narrowly on one issue; very specific. Usually focus is on legal change. They target the state and they want to make sure that the state advances their interest e.g., National Rifle Association.  Media (traditional and new)  Churches/religious organizations  Armed forces • Terrorist groups – armed group that deliberately uses violence against civilian populations as opposed to military targets, in hopes that the resulting spread of fear amongst the people will further a narrow political agenda that the group has. • Insurgent forces – revolutionary armed groups committed to the violent overthrow of their own government and start a civil war. • Private militia – armed groups not part of any official military e.g., in Darfur region in Sudan to ethnically cleanse the black Sudanese. • PMCs (Private Military Companies)/mercenaries – groups that fight for money e.g., Blackwater. CHAPTER 1 – CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS The state: government and its powers − State – government of a country. − State formation How did the earth come to be 211 countries? o State formation occurs in Europe then spreads to the rest of the world through European colonialism and imperialism. o The modern nation-state is half-way between tiny (Greek) city state and giant cosmopolitan (Roman) empire.  Because it was found that neither was sustainable. • Greek city-state was too small and vulnerable. o No economies of scale. o Its small size also gave it a cultural identity.  Athens was the center of cultural science  Sparta known for war/army  Delphi known for religious oracles • Roman Empire was too big and came into contact with many rival groups. Empires − System of governance forged in military conquest. The essence of empires: − Metropole (mother city/hub of empire/mother country) is in the middle; colonies surround it. − Colonies – these are the conquered and subjected lands, the dependencies on the periphery of the empire. The metropole conquers the colony by force. − From colonies  metropole o Relationship represents (abstractly):  Defeat, subjection, extraction, obedience o Relationship entails (concretely):  Political allegiance, taxes, brain drain of best and brightest, natural resources − From metropole  colonies o Relationship entrails concretely  Military force, political leadership, investment, some citizenship rights o Relationship represents (abstractly)  Conquest, domination, protection, exploitation Timeline of development of the world. o Greeks – West/Europe beings  Then gets attacked by the Macedonians, then Persians and finally by the Romans. o Roman Empire (500BC-500AD) – 1000 years  Roman Empire collapsed because it had grown too large to govern efficiently, and its governors were too corrupt. CHAPTER 1 – CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS  Only institution to survive the collapse of Roman civilization in the west as the Roman Catholic Church. o Dark ages (500-1000AD)  Other religions came into the picture – Protestant Reformation began. • When the church refused their demands, they broke away and formed rival Christian churches (Anglican, Lutheran)  Thirty Years War (1618-48) – resulted in the death of 1/3 of the German population  the worst religious war of that time. • Treaty of Westphalia (1648) was signed to bring peace. o Agreement to lay down arms, to live and let live, and represents a kind of deal known as a modus vivendi, meaning something we can live with, even if it’s not our preference. • Led to the start of European interstate system (Westphalian system) o Medieval and early modern (1000-1500AD) o Rise of modern-state of Europe e.g., England, Spain, France  Big so enjoys economies of scale  Can protect itself from invasion  Not so big that it lacks internal coherence  Unified culture – education, national languages, legal system o 1492 – Empire re-born (essentially through European colonialism and imperialism).  Columbus discovers New World that proved to be irresistible to the modern states.  The land, natural resources and number of souls to convert to Christianity results in the European colonialism and imperialism. • European imperialism had a profound effect on world history: o Inter-state system was created o Much of the world was used as a vast resource base for Europe with people, money and natural commodities flowing from around the world into the heart of European capitals.  Use the Roman Empire’s template for empire to apply when they go to colonize.  For 500 years, 8 countries come to rule the rest of the world (1492-1945)  hey-dey of European Imperialism • Ends in 1945 because Europe is destroyed and they cannot afford empires and they fall apart. • Decolonization began 1945-1994. o WWI (1914-18)  Allies – France, UK, Russia • In 1917, Russia left war because of their communist revolution. CHAPTER 1 – CORE CONCEPTS AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS • US replaced them in the war then; and eventually won the war for them.  Other side – Germans, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman empire  War began because the Germans wanted to challenge UK for hegemony in Europe.  When the war ended, allies broke down the Ottoman Empire which ruled MENA (Middle East North Africa), and that started Western involvement in the Middle East. • Treaty of Versailles  make Germany pay reparations fines for starting the war. Bankrupt Germany in less than 10 years. • Leads to economic chaos.
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