INTST101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Well-Founded Relation, Food Security, Habitual Residence

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What in your view is security and how have conceptions of it changed over time?:
Security entails national and individual defense from physical and physiological harm:
War, terrorism, blackmail, assault, property theft, damage etc
Developed nations focus more on national security via military efforts > public’s personal security
and privacy is compromised due to state censorship and surveillance
Underdeveloped/Developing nations focus on individual defense due to structural and direct
violence (poverty, unemployment, rioting, etc)
today security is concerned with state and that sate’s public; in the past security was defined by
kingdoms, knighthoods, language, religion, etc
Views of National/international and Global security Overtime:
Realism (Power Politics): states will always act on what is in their national interest and its unrealistic
to expect to do otherwise
Liberalism/Liberal Institutionalism: states will cooperate when given the opportunity to do so hence
importance of international organizations/law
Proxy Wars of Cold War:
Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History:
- Thesis: the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal
democracy as the final form of human government
- Evidence: the democratic peace theory > argues that mature democracies rarely or never go to war
with one another
- Elimination of interstate warfare in South America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe among
countries that moved from military dictatorships to liberal democracies
Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations:
- Thesis: people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold
War world
- Believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs
characterized by cultural conflict > conflicts between two civilizations—such as the West and Islam—have
far greater potential for violence
- Divided the world into the "major civilizations"
- Explanations for why civilizations will clash:
-Differences among civilizations by history, language, culture, tradition, and, most important, religion
they will not soon disappear.
-World is becoming a smaller place > interactions across the world are increasing, which intensify
"civilization consciousness" and the awareness of differences between civilizations
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-Economic regionalism is increasing > successful economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-
Human Security:
-proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state
-includes development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights
-introduced by UN’s Development Programme's 1994 > argued "freedom from want" and "freedom
from fear" for all persons is the best path to reduce global insecurity > rreflected the end of the Cold
War and a new international environment where rising power of globalization decreased
importance of nation-states
-urges sustainable development as the functional strategy to ensure human security
-promoters are the gov. of Canada and Norway > in established a ‘human security network’ of
states and NGOs that endorse the concept
-Issues: term too vague to be useful to policy makers > Human security is like ‘sustainable
development’—everyone is for it, but few people have a clear idea what it means
-vagueness could be dangerous > human security needs boundaries, without which all issues could
become securitized
-ex. obesity in the United States was a security issue because it decreased the number of men
available for military service
-if poverty and development are defined security issues > then militaries from developed nations will
become involved in addressing them > would expand their role in developing countries
American Neo-conservatism:
- a US–based intellectual movement emphasizes security issues in foreign affairs and need for the US to
adopt interventionist foreign policy
- US is world’s main military power, and conventional force matters > needs to use this advantage to change
the culture of the Middle East and to foster democracy in the region
- US can’t be tied down by allies (mainly Europe) who fail to recognize the danger of Islamists
- danger arises from within Islam itself and the cultural and political failures within the region
- during extraordinary threats US cant confirm to conventional rules > lead to invasion of Iraq (constitutional
war backed by the Bush Doctrine)
> Demography:
- the academic study of populations by mathematical means
- changes in human populations have major effects on the demand for re- sources and the power of
states that may lead to conflict:
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