INTST101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Well-Founded Relation, Food Security, Habitual Residence

47 views5 pages
SECURITY
What in your view is security and how have conceptions of it changed over time?:
Security entails national and individual defense from physical and physiological harm:
War, terrorism, blackmail, assault, property theft, damage etc
Developed nations focus more on national security via military efforts > public’s personal security
and privacy is compromised due to state censorship and surveillance
Underdeveloped/Developing nations focus on individual defense due to structural and direct
violence (poverty, unemployment, rioting, etc)
today security is concerned with state and that sate’s public; in the past security was defined by
kingdoms, knighthoods, language, religion, etc
Views of National/international and Global security Overtime:
Realism (Power Politics): states will always act on what is in their national interest and its unrealistic
to expect to do otherwise
Liberalism/Liberal Institutionalism: states will cooperate when given the opportunity to do so hence
importance of international organizations/law
Proxy Wars of Cold War:
Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History:
- Thesis: the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal
democracy as the final form of human government
- Evidence: the democratic peace theory > argues that mature democracies rarely or never go to war
with one another
- Elimination of interstate warfare in South America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe among
countries that moved from military dictatorships to liberal democracies
Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations:
- Thesis: people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold
War world
- Believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs
characterized by cultural conflict > conflicts between two civilizations—such as the West and Islam—have
far greater potential for violence
- Divided the world into the "major civilizations"
- Explanations for why civilizations will clash:
-Differences among civilizations by history, language, culture, tradition, and, most important, religion
they will not soon disappear.
-World is becoming a smaller place > interactions across the world are increasing, which intensify
"civilization consciousness" and the awareness of differences between civilizations
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-Economic regionalism is increasing > successful economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-
consciousness
Human Security:
-proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state
-includes development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights
-introduced by UN’s Development Programme's 1994 > argued "freedom from want" and "freedom
from fear" for all persons is the best path to reduce global insecurity > rreflected the end of the Cold
War and a new international environment where rising power of globalization decreased
importance of nation-states
-urges sustainable development as the functional strategy to ensure human security
-promoters are the gov. of Canada and Norway > in established a ‘human security network’ of
states and NGOs that endorse the concept
-Issues: term too vague to be useful to policy makers > Human security is like ‘sustainable
development’—everyone is for it, but few people have a clear idea what it means
-vagueness could be dangerous > human security needs boundaries, without which all issues could
become securitized
-ex. obesity in the United States was a security issue because it decreased the number of men
available for military service
-if poverty and development are defined security issues > then militaries from developed nations will
become involved in addressing them > would expand their role in developing countries
American Neo-conservatism:
- a US–based intellectual movement emphasizes security issues in foreign affairs and need for the US to
adopt interventionist foreign policy
- US is world’s main military power, and conventional force matters > needs to use this advantage to change
the culture of the Middle East and to foster democracy in the region
- US can’t be tied down by allies (mainly Europe) who fail to recognize the danger of Islamists
- danger arises from within Islam itself and the cultural and political failures within the region
- during extraordinary threats US cant confirm to conventional rules > lead to invasion of Iraq (constitutional
war backed by the Bush Doctrine)
> Demography:
- the academic study of populations by mathematical means
- changes in human populations have major effects on the demand for re- sources and the power of
states that may lead to conflict:
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class