Textbook Notes (369,056)
Canada (162,366)
KIN 100L (1)

KIN 100L Lab 1.docx

8 Pages

Course Code
KIN 100L
Tamara Mac Iel

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
KIN 100L Lab 1: Shoulder and Arm (Textbook Notes) Introduction to Clinically Oriented Anatomy  Anatomy: setting in which events of life occur or structure in which the functions of life occur  Three Approaches to Studying Anatomy o Regional  Organization of the body into major organs or segments  E.g. main body (head, neck and trunk) upper, and lower limb  Subdivided again into areas and regions  Study the body by focusing on one specific part, area or region  then looking at the arrangement of various relationships of certain systematic structures (muscles, connective tissue, nerves)  look at adj. areas in an ordered sequence  Also recognized the body’s org. in layers (skin, subcantaneous tissue, and deep fascia) covering deeper structures (bones, muscles and cavities)  Surface Anatomy: what lies under the skin and are perceptible (palpate) to touch at rest on in action  Instruments/Techniques used in clinical practice of regional anatomy  Physical Examination: Clinical application of surface anatomy  Palpation: clinical technique used for observing and listening  Stethoscope (lungs and heart)  Opthalmoscope (eyeballs)  Radiographic and Sectional Imaging (radiographic anatomy) o Provides info on muscle tone, body fluids and pressures, and gravity o Look at aspects of the human body that cannot be observes in a cadaver  Endoscopic Techniques (insertable flexible fibre optics device to examine structures such as the stomach)  Dissection o Best way to learn 3D structures and their relationships o Learn by doing  Prossection o Carefully prep. dissections for demonstration o Systematic  Study of the body’s organ systems and how they work together to carry out complex functions  Basic Systems  Integumentary System o Dermatology o Skin (protective covering/container), appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), and subcanteneous tissue underneath  Skeletal System o Osteology o Bones and cartilage o Responsible for our structure and support for muscles o What the muscle system acts on to produce movement o Protection form vital organs (e.g. heart and lungs)  Articular System o Arthrology o Joints are associated ligaments o Connects bony parts o Provides sites for movement  Muscular System o Myology o Consists of skeletal muscles for movement Act = contract o Smooth and cardiac muscles that propel, control and expels fluid the flow of fluid and contained substance  Nervous System o Neurology o Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (nerves and ganglia with motor and sensory endings) o Controls and coordinates the functions of organ systems o Enables to body to respond to activities within environment o Sense organs  Olfactory organ (smell)  Eye or visual system (sight)- ophthalmology  Ear (hearing and balance)- otology  Gustatory Organ (taste)  Circulatory System o Angiology o Transports body’s fluids o Two Systems  Cardiovascular System  Cardiology  Heart and blood vessels  Propels and conducts blood o delivering2O nutrients and hormones to cells o removing waste product  Lympatic System  Network of lympatic vessels  Withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from body’s intestinal (intercellular) fluid compartment  filters though lymph node -- ? Return to bloodstream  Alimentary/ Digestive System o Gastroenterology o Digestive tract from mouth to anus o All associated organs and glands that function in ingestion  mastication (chewing) deglutition (swallowing)  digestion  absorption of food – elimination of solid waste (feces)  Respiratory System o Pulmonology o Consists of air passages and lungs o Supply O2to blood for cellular respiration and elimin2te CO o Diaphragm and larynx control air flow and produce tone in larynx (further mod by tongue, mouth and teeth)  Urinary System o Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra o Filters bloods o Produces, transports, stores, and intermittently excrete urine  Reproductive System (Genital) o Gynecology (females) o Andrology (males) o Consists of gonads, ducts that transport gametes and genitalia that enable their union  Females = oocytes (eggs) in ovary  Males = sperm in testes  Endocrine System (Hormone System) o Endocrinology o Consists of specialized structures that secrete hormones o Includes ductless endocrine glands (thyroid) isolated cell cluster In gut and blood vessels, and special nerve endings o Hormones  Organic molecules  Carried by circulatory system to distance effector cells  Influence of this system is broadly distributed in the nervous system  Also influences metabolism, pregnancy, birth (parturition), and menstrual cycle  None of systems functions in isolation  Passive skeletal and articular systems constitute a SUPERSYSTEM called the locomotor system/apparatus b/c they work together to produce locomotion in the body o Include muscles, bones, ligaments, joints etc. o Brain and nerves stimulate to make them act o Arteries and veins supply 2 and nutrients and remove waste o Sensory organs play role in gravitation environment the body is submerged in o Clinical (Applied)  Focuses on aspects to body that are important to the practice of medicine and other allied health sciences  Often involves inverting and reversing the thought process  Instead of “this muscle acts in such and such way”, one would as “ what happen in the absence of this action?”  Anatomical Terminology o Anatomical Position  As if the person was standing upright  Head, gaze (eyes) and toes directed anteriorly (forward)  Arm adj to the sides with the palms facing anteriorly  Lower limbs close together and feet parallel  Keep in mind  Gravity causes a downward shift of internal organs (viscera) when upright position is assumed  People are usually examined in supine position(laying down on back or stomach)  need to make special note of the exception to anatomical position o Anatomical Planes (Four imaginary planes that intersect the body in anatomical position)  Median Plane  Vertical planes passing longitudinally  Divides body into right and left sides  Defines the midline of the head, neck and trunk where it intersects the surface of the body  Midline ≠ Median Plane  Saggital Plane  Vertical planes parallel to the median plane  Another word is Parasaggital (parallel to median  not used b.c any plane that is parallel to median plane is a saggital one)  Paramedian plane: a plane that is parallel and near the median plane  Frontal (Coronal planes)  Vertical planes that pass at right angles to the median planes  Divided body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts  Transverse Planes  Horizontal plants that pass at right angles to median and frontal planes (z-axis)  Divides body into superior(upper) and inferior (lower)  Radiologist refer to it as transaxial (commonly shortened to axial planes)  There are an infinite number of planes passing thorough the body. Thus, always state the reference point  Main use of anatomical planes it the describe sections  Three types of sections  Longitudinal o Run lengthwise/parallel to the long axis of the body or any of its parts o Applies regardless of body’s position o Commonly used longitudinal sections  Median  Frontal  Sagittal o 180° range of possible long. sections**  Transverse o Cross sections o Slices of the body o Cut through long. axis of the body or any of its parts  Oblique o Not cut along any of the previous sections o Terms of Relationship and Comparison  To describe the relationship parts of the body or compare the position of two structures relative to one another  Superior: structure that is nearer to the vertex and the topmost point of the cranium  NB: Cranial is a common dir. Term referring to the cranium (towards the head or cranium)  Inferior: structure situated near the sole of the foot  Caudal is another useful directional term that is used to describe something that is towards the foot or trail region (characterized by the coccynx or tail bone  small bone at the inferior caudal end of the vertebrate column)  Posterior (dorsal): back surface of the body; nearer to the back  Anterior (ventral): front surface; face of the body  Rostral  Used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brains  Means towards the rostrum (Latin for beak)  In humans, it is denoted as nearer to the anterior part of the head o E.g. frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum  Medial: structure near the median plane of the body  Lateral: stipulates that a structure is further away from the median plane  Dorsum  Refers to the superior aspect of any part the protrudes anteriorly from the body  Example o Tongue, nose, penis or foot  Also u
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.