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KIN 100L (1)
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KIN 100L Lab 1.docx

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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KIN 100L
Professor
Tamara Mac Iel

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KIN 100L Lab 1: Shoulder and Arm (Textbook Notes) Introduction to Clinically Oriented Anatomy  Anatomy: setting in which events of life occur or structure in which the functions of life occur  Three Approaches to Studying Anatomy o Regional  Organization of the body into major organs or segments  E.g. main body (head, neck and trunk) upper, and lower limb  Subdivided again into areas and regions  Study the body by focusing on one specific part, area or region  then looking at the arrangement of various relationships of certain systematic structures (muscles, connective tissue, nerves)  look at adj. areas in an ordered sequence  Also recognized the body’s org. in layers (skin, subcantaneous tissue, and deep fascia) covering deeper structures (bones, muscles and cavities)  Surface Anatomy: what lies under the skin and are perceptible (palpate) to touch at rest on in action  Instruments/Techniques used in clinical practice of regional anatomy  Physical Examination: Clinical application of surface anatomy  Palpation: clinical technique used for observing and listening  Stethoscope (lungs and heart)  Opthalmoscope (eyeballs)  Radiographic and Sectional Imaging (radiographic anatomy) o Provides info on muscle tone, body fluids and pressures, and gravity o Look at aspects of the human body that cannot be observes in a cadaver  Endoscopic Techniques (insertable flexible fibre optics device to examine structures such as the stomach)  Dissection o Best way to learn 3D structures and their relationships o Learn by doing  Prossection o Carefully prep. dissections for demonstration o Systematic  Study of the body’s organ systems and how they work together to carry out complex functions  Basic Systems  Integumentary System o Dermatology o Skin (protective covering/container), appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), and subcanteneous tissue underneath  Skeletal System o Osteology o Bones and cartilage o Responsible for our structure and support for muscles o What the muscle system acts on to produce movement o Protection form vital organs (e.g. heart and lungs)  Articular System o Arthrology o Joints are associated ligaments o Connects bony parts o Provides sites for movement  Muscular System o Myology o Consists of skeletal muscles for movement Act = contract o Smooth and cardiac muscles that propel, control and expels fluid the flow of fluid and contained substance  Nervous System o Neurology o Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (nerves and ganglia with motor and sensory endings) o Controls and coordinates the functions of organ systems o Enables to body to respond to activities within environment o Sense organs  Olfactory organ (smell)  Eye or visual system (sight)- ophthalmology  Ear (hearing and balance)- otology  Gustatory Organ (taste)  Circulatory System o Angiology o Transports body’s fluids o Two Systems  Cardiovascular System  Cardiology  Heart and blood vessels  Propels and conducts blood o delivering2O nutrients and hormones to cells o removing waste product  Lympatic System  Network of lympatic vessels  Withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from body’s intestinal (intercellular) fluid compartment  filters though lymph node -- ? Return to bloodstream  Alimentary/ Digestive System o Gastroenterology o Digestive tract from mouth to anus o All associated organs and glands that function in ingestion  mastication (chewing) deglutition (swallowing)  digestion  absorption of food – elimination of solid waste (feces)  Respiratory System o Pulmonology o Consists of air passages and lungs o Supply O2to blood for cellular respiration and elimin2te CO o Diaphragm and larynx control air flow and produce tone in larynx (further mod by tongue, mouth and teeth)  Urinary System o Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra o Filters bloods o Produces, transports, stores, and intermittently excrete urine  Reproductive System (Genital) o Gynecology (females) o Andrology (males) o Consists of gonads, ducts that transport gametes and genitalia that enable their union  Females = oocytes (eggs) in ovary  Males = sperm in testes  Endocrine System (Hormone System) o Endocrinology o Consists of specialized structures that secrete hormones o Includes ductless endocrine glands (thyroid) isolated cell cluster In gut and blood vessels, and special nerve endings o Hormones  Organic molecules  Carried by circulatory system to distance effector cells  Influence of this system is broadly distributed in the nervous system  Also influences metabolism, pregnancy, birth (parturition), and menstrual cycle  None of systems functions in isolation  Passive skeletal and articular systems constitute a SUPERSYSTEM called the locomotor system/apparatus b/c they work together to produce locomotion in the body o Include muscles, bones, ligaments, joints etc. o Brain and nerves stimulate to make them act o Arteries and veins supply 2 and nutrients and remove waste o Sensory organs play role in gravitation environment the body is submerged in o Clinical (Applied)  Focuses on aspects to body that are important to the practice of medicine and other allied health sciences  Often involves inverting and reversing the thought process  Instead of “this muscle acts in such and such way”, one would as “ what happen in the absence of this action?”  Anatomical Terminology o Anatomical Position  As if the person was standing upright  Head, gaze (eyes) and toes directed anteriorly (forward)  Arm adj to the sides with the palms facing anteriorly  Lower limbs close together and feet parallel  Keep in mind  Gravity causes a downward shift of internal organs (viscera) when upright position is assumed  People are usually examined in supine position(laying down on back or stomach)  need to make special note of the exception to anatomical position o Anatomical Planes (Four imaginary planes that intersect the body in anatomical position)  Median Plane  Vertical planes passing longitudinally  Divides body into right and left sides  Defines the midline of the head, neck and trunk where it intersects the surface of the body  Midline ≠ Median Plane  Saggital Plane  Vertical planes parallel to the median plane  Another word is Parasaggital (parallel to median  not used b.c any plane that is parallel to median plane is a saggital one)  Paramedian plane: a plane that is parallel and near the median plane  Frontal (Coronal planes)  Vertical planes that pass at right angles to the median planes  Divided body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts  Transverse Planes  Horizontal plants that pass at right angles to median and frontal planes (z-axis)  Divides body into superior(upper) and inferior (lower)  Radiologist refer to it as transaxial (commonly shortened to axial planes)  There are an infinite number of planes passing thorough the body. Thus, always state the reference point  Main use of anatomical planes it the describe sections  Three types of sections  Longitudinal o Run lengthwise/parallel to the long axis of the body or any of its parts o Applies regardless of body’s position o Commonly used longitudinal sections  Median  Frontal  Sagittal o 180° range of possible long. sections**  Transverse o Cross sections o Slices of the body o Cut through long. axis of the body or any of its parts  Oblique o Not cut along any of the previous sections o Terms of Relationship and Comparison  To describe the relationship parts of the body or compare the position of two structures relative to one another  Superior: structure that is nearer to the vertex and the topmost point of the cranium  NB: Cranial is a common dir. Term referring to the cranium (towards the head or cranium)  Inferior: structure situated near the sole of the foot  Caudal is another useful directional term that is used to describe something that is towards the foot or trail region (characterized by the coccynx or tail bone  small bone at the inferior caudal end of the vertebrate column)  Posterior (dorsal): back surface of the body; nearer to the back  Anterior (ventral): front surface; face of the body  Rostral  Used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brains  Means towards the rostrum (Latin for beak)  In humans, it is denoted as nearer to the anterior part of the head o E.g. frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum  Medial: structure near the median plane of the body  Lateral: stipulates that a structure is further away from the median plane  Dorsum  Refers to the superior aspect of any part the protrudes anteriorly from the body  Example o Tongue, nose, penis or foot  Also u
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