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KIN 105 (1)

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KIN 105
Barry Mc Clinchey

Midterm 1 Notes010514 1055 AMHomeostasis the maintenance of a constant or unchanging internal environment Normal Values body temp 37 degrees blood pressure 12080 mmHg VO2 025030 Lminwhen exercising we develop a new normal and adjust our levels of homeostasis which is determined by the intensity of exercise one is atas intensity increases body temperature increases and so does VO2 Control Systems homeostasis is achieved through a control systema increase or decrease in homeostasis causes a stimulus to be sent to a sensor which detects the change and sends info to the control center the control centre integrates the info to make the decision and produce a effect in the brain decision makerthe response then produces a effect which creates homeostasis through negative feedbacknegative feedback working in the opposite direction to get back to homeostasis positive feedback working away from homeostasis to cause a cascade like childbirthfeedback strategy sensors detect stimulus and reports to the control centre which causes a effect that alters the stimulus in the required direction two kinds positive and negativeslower and more accurate to produce a more appropriate response feedforward strategy before a sensor detects the stimulus the control centre can direct the effect to the appropriate action for what is about to occurfaster response and gross controlGain of a control system High Gain the degree of the response produces a small error or small deviation from homeostasis and produces a large response Low Gain the degree of the response produces a large error or large deviation from homeostasis and produces a small response Example Blood Glucose Regulation eating increases blood glucose moves to the pancreas then makes insulin where the glucose is uptook and blood glucose is decreasedHomeostasiss Relevance to the CardiovascularRespiratory Responses to Exercise increases the stress in the muscle which lowers muscle and protein and the muscle adapts and makes more protein actin and myosin which makes the muscle bigger exercise training presents challenges to homeostatic control through BP VO2 pHCO2 glucose and ventilation this can cause diseases like hypertension or increased BP and diabetes like increased glucoseBioenergetics energy is converted into ATP and exercise requires increased energy thus increased ATP required for muscles3 metabolic pathwaysHigh Energy Phosphate Transfer System PCADPATPCrelies on stored PC in the musclereaction is catalyzed by creatine kinase occurs when there is limited PC provides energy for a short duration during anaerobic activities 15 secondsGlycolysis System Lactic mostly used at max exercise for 3060 seconds occurs due to the limited stores of ATP present since muscle possesses the ability to produce ATPthe muscle produces ATP since it cannot be transported glucose or glycogenlactic acidATP glucose comes from the blood and glycogen from the muscle which then produces lactic acid and ATP through anaerobic metabolism in the muscle cytoplasmlactic acid is then split up in hydrogen ions and lactate ions and the hydrogen ions are used to determine the pH if the exercise is taken above 3060 seconds at max more lactic acid is produced and more Hydrogen ions which decreases pH lactate levels begin to rise around 5060 of VO2 max increasing reliance on anaerobic metabolismlactic acid production is dependant on the oxygen availability in the muscle cellOxidative Phosphorylation used for exercise longer than 2minutes NADH and FADH is used in the ETC and CO2 is produced in the Krebs Cycle ATP is produced down the ETC from NADH FADH using oxygen ETC is dependant on O2 because everything gets piled up at the end and O2 is the final step to completion to produce H2O used in aerobic exercise glucose glycogen and fat enter the krebs cycle and then goes into ETC where CO2 H2O and ATP is produced in end 32 ATP 8NADH and 2 FADH are produced protein is used in small amounts only mainly used when starving fats can be used as a substrate fat oxidationbeta oxidation makes less ATP but since it requires O2 it depends on that to produce ATP but still produces a lot to use just not as much per minuteenzymes for this pathway are located in the mitochandriawhen working at maximum power phosphagen is the primary energy system used and usually lasts for 510 seconds when working at 7590 of max power glycolytic energy systems are used for 1530 seconds when working at 3075 of maximum power glycolytic and oxidative energy systems are used for 13 minutes
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