MSCI211 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Motivation, Productivity Commission, Caveat Emptor

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Chapter 4: Motivating Self and Others
What is motivation?
o As the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and
persistence of effort towards reaching a goal
o Key three elements: intensity (how hard a person tries; high intensity is unlikely
to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the efford is channeled in
a direction that is beneficial), direction and persistence (how long a person can
maintain effort)
o Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation
o Extrinsic motivations come from outside the person and include such things as
pay, bonuses and other tangible rewards
o Intrinsic motivation come from a person’s internal desire to do something
motivated by such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction
o Theories of motivation: needs (must be met in order to motivate individuals) and
process theories (understand the actual ways in which we and others can be
motivated)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
o Within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs:
Physiological (hunger, thirst, other bodily needs) lower-order needs
Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm
lower-order needs
Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance higher-order needs
Esteem: internal esteem such as self-respect, achievements; external
factors (recognition and attention)
Self-actualization; growth, self-fulfillment
o Lower-ordered needs were related to positive life evaluation and higher needs is
linked to enjoying life
ERG Theory: Maslow needs to align it more closely with the empirical research
o Argues that there are three core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
Motivation-Hygiene theory (two-factor theory)
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o Attitude towards the work can well determine success or failure
Factors leading to job satisfaction (motivators) are separated from those
that lead to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors: quality, supervision, pat,
company policies, relationship with others)
The procedure used is limited by his methodology; when things are well,
people tend to take credit themselves. Blame failure on the external
environment
Questionable and no overall measure of satisfaction was used
Assumed relationship between satisfaction and productivity
o McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Needs for achievements- nAch (drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set
of standards, to strive to succeed)
Needs for power- nPow (need to make others behave in a way that they
would not have behaved otherwise)
need for affiliation- nAff (desire for friendly and close interpersonal
relationships (closely related to managerial success)
0.5- 50-50 chance of success
process is time consuming and expensive
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Process Theories of Motivation:
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