MSCI211 Chapter Notes -Extraversion And Introversion, Stereotype, Satisficing

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Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behaviour?
- Organizational Behaviour  a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals,
groups, and structure on behaviour within organizations
oPurpose is to apply such knowledge toward improving an organization’s
effectiveness
- Organization  A consciously coordinated social unit, made up of a group of people who
work together on common goals on a relative continuous basis
- The Rigour of Organizational Behaviour:
oOB looks at consistencies
There are certain fundamental consistencies underlying the behaviour of
most individuals that can be identified and then modified to reflect
individual differences
Important b/c they allow predictability
E.g. when you get into your car, you can make a prediction about
how other people will behave
There are rules (written and unwritten) in every situation giving you the
ability to make a general prediction of expected behaviour
oOB is more than common sense
Systematic approach  the belief that behaviour is not random; it is
generally predictable
Systematic Study  looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes
and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence (gathered
under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably
rigorous manner)
Evidence-Based Management basing managerial decisions on the best
available scientific evidence – e.g. we would want a doctor to make
decisions about patient care based on the latest evidence
oOB has few absolutes
oOB takes a contingency approach
OB’s answers depend on the situation e.g. OB scholars would avoid
saying that everyone likes complex and challenging work; not everyone
does
An approach taken by OB that considers behaviour within the context in
which it occurs
- The Layers of OB
oThe Individual (motivating self and others)
Emotions
Values and Attitudes
Perception
Personality
oThe Group (power and politics)
Negotiation
Conflict
Communication
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Groups and teams
oThe Organization
Change
Organizational Culture
Decision making
Leadership
- Organizational Commitment  the degree to which an employee identifies with the
organization and wishes to remain with the organization
- Affective Commitment  the strength of an individuals emotional attachment to,
identification with, and involvement in the organization
- Challenges at the Individual Level
oIndividual Differences  personality characteristics, perception, values, and
attitudes (little that those within the organization can do to alter these things)
oJob Satisfaction  A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation
of its characteristics (job satisfaction affects production and motivation)
oMotivation employers are facing a demotivated work force, so the use of rewards
can be used as a source of motivation
oEmpowerment  managers are being asked to share more of their power (e.g.
called coaches, advisors rather than bosses)  means giving employees
responsibility for what they do
- Ethical Dilemmas and Ethical Choices  situations in which individuals are required to
define right and wrong conduct
- Ethics  the study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us
whether actions are right or wrong
- Challenges at the Group Level:
oWorking with Other  involves interpersonal skills, or people skills, the ability to
communicate etc.
oWorking Diversity the mix of people in organizations in terms of gender, race,
ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, and age, and demographic characteristics
such as education and socio-economic status
- Challenges at the Organizational Level
oImproving Customer Service
oStimulating Innovation and Change  ease in to it, employees may not want
change
oThe Use of Temporary (contingent) Employees
oImproving Quality and Productivity
Productivity  A performance measure including effectiveness and
efficiency
Effectiveness  the achievement of goals
Efficiency  watching costs, the ratio of effective work output to the input
required to produce the work
oDeveloping Effective Employees
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour  discretionary behaviour that is not
part of an employees formal job requirements, but that nevertheless
promotes the effective functioning of the organization
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oHelping Employees with Work-Life Balance
oCreating a Positive Work Environment
Positive Organizational Scholarship  concerns how organizations develop
human strength, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential
oResponding to Globalization (competition from U.S, Europe, Japan, China etc. as
well as other organizations like Rona vs. Home Depot)
- WHAT TO RETAIN FROM THIS MODULE:
oDefine organizational behaviour
oWhat is an organization? Is the family unit an organization?
oWhat does it mean to say OB takes a contingency approach in its analysis of
behaviour?
oWhat are the three levels of analysis in our OB model? Are they related?
oWhat are some of the challenges and opportunities that managers face as we move
into the 21st Century?
oWhy is job satisfaction an important consideration for OB?
oWhat are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to OB?
Chapter 2: Perception, Personality, and Emotions
- Perception  the process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
oPeople’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is
- Factors Influencing Perception:
oThe Perceiver
Interpretation of something is heavily influenced by your personal
characteristics (attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and
expectations)
E.g. if you expect police officers to be authoritative and young people to
be lazy, you may perceive them as such, regardless of their actual traits
People with positive perceptions of others are usually enthusiastic, happy,
kind hearted, courteous, emotionally stable and capable.
People with negative perceptions of others are more likely to be
narcissistic (selfish) and engage in antisocial behaviour
oThe Target
A targets characteristics can affect what we perceive
Loud people are more likely to be noticed in a group than are quiet
ones (same with extremely attractive and unattractive individuals)
Novelty, motion, sound, size, & other attributes of a target shape the way
we see it
The relationship of a target to its background influences perception  often
perceive people with distinguishable characteristics (Asians, women etc.)
as alike in not only physical terms, but unrelated as well
oThe Context
Time, work setting, social setting
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