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Chapter 1

PHIL 145 Chapter 1: What is an Argument?

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PHIL 145
Andrew Stumpf

PHIL 145 Textbook Chapter 1: What is an Argument? What is an Argument? Argument (1): Found where there is some controversy or disagreement about a subject and people try to resolve that disagreement through rational discourse. Argument (2): A reasoned attempt to validate a claim via the basis of other claims (premises). Premises: the reason(s) for the claim that is being asserted. Conclusion: a claim that is being asserted as the case. An argument is a relation of sentences such that one of them is claimed or posited as true while the others are given as reasons for believing the one. An argument MUST contain at least ONE premise. Arguing is a tool used to persuade others of our claims through reason or by citing evidence. Use of Arguments Used to persuade others of our opinions, beliefs, and notions on various issues. Constructing an argument can be done to reflect on how we could validate or justify a claim that we already believe. Two components to arguments; (1) Understanding Them (2) Evaluating Them Someone who gives an argument could be attempting to establish their positon on an issue via a claim (conclusion) , and using other claims (reasonspremises) to SUPPORT and JUSTIFY the claim. The reasons provided try to imply the reasonability of the posited claim. General Structure of Arguments Premise 1: ( First reason goes here) Premise 2: Premise 3: Therefore, Conclusion : ( After all premises have been listed the conclusion is followed after writing therefore. Eliminate any irrelevant sentences or words that in and of themselves are not premises. This helps clearly visualize the argument present in the text, and analyze it.
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