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PHIL 215 (3)
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Section 1 and 2 notes from reading.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 215
Professor
Brian Orend
Semester
Fall

Description
Section 1Ethicsthe study of right and wrong the study of moralityIts a branch of philosophy inquiring into issues that are subject to judgments of right or wrong Ex whether to cheat or notMoralitya particular system of ethical beliefs or principles That is the issue has to do with right or wrong but no judgment is being made on way or another Its a systems or moralsImmoralmorally wrongto do wrongAmoralthe issue that does not involve right or wrong Amoral person is someone who doesnt have any morality or any morals at allMoralinvolves right or wrongshort form for morality basically Four questions to ask when examining ethical issues 1 What are your reasons a Good reasons are relevant There are several errors in reasoning that indicate lack of relevance i Ad hominemto the person Making a claim about the person putting forth the position rather than about the position itself ii Paper tigerResponding to someones argument but turning it into something different than it was The response is irrelevant to the argument that was actually proposed iii Red herringA distraction Ex I cant cut down those trees its too much environmental damage Responseif you dont someone else will iv Appeal to inappropriate authoritydont refer to any expert in general make sure they are an expert in the relevant field v Appeal to popularityby saying everyone does it you are implying the opinion of the majority carries weighthowever the majority it not always rightat times theyre wrong Even if they are right though the fact that theyre right isnt reason enough to support your point vi Appeal to traditiondont do something just because its always been done that way Find out why its being done that way and if its a good reason than do it but if not then change b Good reasons are adequate and strong enough to support your claim There are several errors in reasoning that indicate lack of adequacy i Slippery Slope argumentsarguing that one will lead to another which will lead to another this may be probable but not for sure poor argument ii Post hocthe assumption that because something happens before something else it was the cause of that something else c The claims in your reasons if involving empirical claims must be true i Empirical claimsa claim that can be tested and that is subject to correspondence or lack of with reality The is questions1 Strategic claimstheought questions like what should the company do prescriptiveEmpirical claim is what does the company do descriptive
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