Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
PSCI 250 (3)
Chapter 3

P250-Ch. 3 textbook notes

8 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 250
Ivan Jaworsky

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Ch.3-Modern State Concepts ● State- Most important form of politicalorganization in modern politics ○ Characterized by centralized control- ■ Force ■ Bureaucratic org. ■ Provision of # of public goods ● Modern State ○ Rule of law ■ System that imposes regularized rules in a polity ● Ⱳ key criteria→ equalrights; regular enforcement of rules ⱥ relative independence of judiciary ● King’s authority rivaled by both church ⱥ nobility ○ Modern State ■ Distinguish states in modern world from earlier forms of political centralization ● Extensive bureaucracy ● Centralization of violence ● Impersonality ● State Capacity ○ Ability to achieve it objectives ■ Controlviolence ■ Effectively tax ppl ■ Maintain well-funct’g institut’ns ■ Rule of law ● Failed States ○ Can’t/Doesn’t perform its expected functs ○ Capacity declines to a certain point ○ Human Capital ■ Edu skills; health; qualities individ ⱥ groups possess that affect their economic prospects ○ Diff btw society that evolved own politicalstructures that are not fullstate-like vs one that has tried ⱥ failed to develop ■ Both handicap society that aims to compete globally ○ State Building ■ Process through which states are constructed out of other kinds of polities ■ State capacity is ↑ ○ Weak states are likely to produce→ Unstable, poor, ⱥ potentially violent societies Ranking Country 1 Somalia 2 Chad 3 Sudan 5 Haiti 7 Afghanistan 9 Iraq 14 Nigeria Concepts Cont’d ● State-Society Relationship ○ Modern state is partially autonomous ⱥ is situated in relationships ⱳ other actors = important to study ○ Autonomous→ Not subject to totalcontrolof other orgs→ tendency to serve as base to controlother orgs ■ Eg→ Catholic Church in EU before modern states = shared sovereignty ○ Quality, strength, ⱥ type of state not important ○ Countries have diff. degrees ⱥ types of civilsociety ■ Space in society outside of org. of the state→ citizens come together ⱥ organize themselves ■ Accompanies strong states ⱳ well-institut’nzed Dem. = Problematic in authoritarian states→ often seek to co-opt/ eliminate citizen activities ○ Weak states= less autonomous ⱥ paradoxically be less responsive → broader citizenry ○ Bureaucracy + ability to extract resources (taxes) from pplsubjected to their control ■ Explains their efficacy ⱥ power Types ● Characteristics of Modern States ○ Bureaucracy ■ Form of Org.- Has individuals operating ⱥ working under established, specified ⱥ complex rules ■ Adv- Efficiently organize collective action in pursuit of common projects ● Turn pplwho hold offices into instruments ■ Much more bureaucratic that other older politicalorgs. ■ Less functionalbureaucracy= far lower state capacity ○ Impersonality ■ Quality = Less likely to be identified ⱳ personalities of their leaders ■ Treated like Citizens ● Relationship btw state ⱥ members→ have basic rights ⱥ are in some way represented in the state→ no preference/discrimination ■ Leader- doesn’t own the state ○ Sovereignty ■ (1) Source of legitimate authority ■ (2) Ultimate authority within their specifically demarcated territories ■ Exerts a monopoly on the use of force ■ Exceptions- ● Territories that has declared independence (not recognized) that is not controlled by State ● Moldova- Transnistria claimed independence ● Chechenia ● Functions of Modern State ○ Taxation ■ Existence dependent on taxation ■ Weak states→ Trouble taxing their citizenry→ cannot become stronger ● Exacerbated in developing states rich in naturalresources ○ Resource Curse= May avoid ↑ taxes → rely on Rev. from expts. ○ Defense ■ Coordination of military action ■ More visible tasks ■ In some cases military closely linked to decision making vs civilian control wellinstitutionalized ○ Policing ■ Establish organizationalbodies to police their societies internally ■ Key mechanisms- monopoly of force maintained ■ States create ⱥ maintain system of punishment linked to police/judicialsys ● Use of physically violent forms of punishment ● Incarceration- key strategy (US-high % of ppl) ○ Economic Management ■ Efforts to shape economic performance of societies ● Some states - intervene in economy at different degrees ■ Poor economic performance by Gov’t= declining legitimacy ■ Undermining State→ Sustained ⱥ really poor economic performance ■ Fiscal Policy ● Budget setting→ Dependent on generating revenue followed by gov’t spending ■ Monetary Policy ● Efforts to shape value of currency→ through use of centralbank ○ Investments in Human Capital ■ Provision→ Education ⱥ Health Care ■ Edu- Higher educated work force has more skills= more productive ● Expanded globally→ often heavily subsidize higher edu ○ To- Edu workforce; lead to technologicalinnovation ■ Health- Healthier ppls= more productive labor force ⱥ higher skills ● Vaccination; food distribution/safety; managing diseases ● Aim- State to pay for health care services/ contributing ○ Welfare State Functions ■ Aims→ Provide basic safety net for vulnerable elements of ppl ■ Socialinsurance, public health care plans, ⱥ poverty relief ■ Scandinavian = strong WS ■ US= Modest ○ Infrastructure ⱥ Other Public Goods ■ Est./ Maintenance- Infrastructure ● Radio; tv; phone; internet sys ● Highways; ports; airports; railways ■ Some- Centrally plan to make 100% public ● Vs.- Private firm to maintain tollhighway/ railsys Causes ⱥ Effects- Why States ⱥ Welfare States Emerge ● States Emerge ○ Political/Conflict Theories ■ Bellicist Theory (Tilly) ● Argue that interstate wars= decisive in crea
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