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PSCI 250 (3)

P250Ch5 textbook notes

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University of Waterloo
Political Science
PSCI 250
Ivan Jaworsky

Ch.5- Democracy ⱥ Democratization Concepts Democracy ⱥ Democratic Regimes ● Dem→ Rule by the pplthat signifies rights and liberties for citizens ● Has two main types of rights politicaland civil ● Civil→ Participate in in civic life, freedom of speech… equalaccess to institutions, etc. ● Political→ Participate in politicallife, right to vote ● Dem Regime→ Predominantly dem institutions including basic civilrights and regular free elections ● Regime is different from gov’t. ○ Iran has Islamic Republic as its regime but has had severaldiff. gov’ts under presidents ● ProceduralDef’n of Democracy ○ Emphasizes minimalstandards/ procedures/ rules that a country should have in place to govern politicallife. ○ PoliticalRights ■ Elections free and fair; regularly schedule; have multiple parties; open to most to run for office ○ CivilLiberties ■ Freedom of speech; access to sources of info; assembly ○ Dem→ not overruled by outside power; must maintain distinction btw civilian and military rule ● Substantive Def’n of Democracy ○ Views a democratic depth ⱥ quality outcomes vs. just certain rule-governed procedures ○ Elements ■ Participation; civilsociety involvement; equity/equality; accountability; public knowledge; outcomes of poverty, inequality, econ Regime Change ⱥ Democratization ● Democratization ○ Process that leads from authoritarian to democracy ● Democratic Breakdown ○ Democracy→ Authoritarian ● Transition ○ Movement from authoritarian regime→ democratic regime ○ Revolutionary means→ Arab Springs 2011 ○ Gradualmeans→ Chilean dem. 1990 ⱳ Pinochet dictatorship ● Consolidation ○ New democratic order becomes institutionalized→ more likely to endure Types Democracy ● Representative Democracy ○ Politicians ⱥ institutions understood to represent the electorate in constitutionalway ○ ConstitutionalRepublic ■ Polity without a monarch→ basic rules of politics laid out in constitution ■ USA ○ ConstitutionalMonarchy ■ Polity ⱳ monarch plays head but ⱳ limited powers by constitution ■ UK ○ Constitutionalrights limit powers of gov’t ⱥ politicalmajority ○ Multiparty Democracy ■ At least 2 parties for power ○ Debate about specific nature ⱥ extent of civilliberties ⱥ # of ways to set up political institutions ○ Not alldemocracies follow the American or UK model→ But share basic fts. ● Direct Democracy ○ Direct citizen involvement in politics→ Increase use of referenda, plebiscites ○ Referenda ■ Popular vote on a specific issue ○ Take form→ Citizen assemblies; community councils ○ Dem may increase use of direct dem initiatives→ not a necessary ft of representative Democratization ● Democratic Transitions ○ Process which a non-dem regime becomes democratic ○ Pace ■ Relatively rapid processes→ severaldays ■ Long slow transitions ● 1980→ Brazil; 1990→ Mexico ● Increasingly clear over time that regime change was occurring ○ Causes ⱥ impacts ■ Some relatively controlled by authoritarian ■ Others come from the collapse of previous power structure ■ 1980→ Brazilhad slow transition to democracy→ military built adv for itself to ensure policies ⱥ preferences influence dem politics ■ Others in revolutionary ways ● Democratic Consolidation ○ Long-term process ○ Dem ⱥ politicalⱥ civilrights become normalⱥ habitualfor citizens ○ When polity strengthens its democracy; no politicalgroups advocating return of authoritarianism/ overthrow dem system ○ Mechanicalindicator→ Country has ‘turned over’ gov’t two or more times ○ Challenging ■ US→ Not fulfilled allof promises associated ⱳ democracy ● Transition→ Levels of democracy (transition) above a certain threshold ● Consolidation→ Require consideration → how robust democracy→ Quality ⱥ depth Causes ⱥ Effects Modernization ● Dem→ Broad socialchanges→ Economic development ⱥ changes that accompany it ○ Relationship btw econ development ⱥ democratization ● Econ change→ Emergence of middle class; bourgeoisie ○ Urbanization→ Key in turning former lords ⱥ peasants into smallbusinessmen ■ Demanded more politicalsay ⱳout being reactionary/revolutionary ● Recently ○ Idea→ Democracies become more stable ⱥ secure when relatively wealthy ○ Conversely→ Poor countries lack stabilizing force (robust middle class) → Auth. ○ Prone to reactionary→ Societies di
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