Module 23-26 Memory
Memory: the persistence 储存 of learning over time through the storage and retrieval
Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned
earlier, as on a fill-in-blank test.
Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items
previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearn: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning
Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by
Storage: the retention 保留 of encoded information over time.
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the
Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven
digit of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory
system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences.
Working memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on
conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial 视觉空间
information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. (it is an active
desktop where your brain processes information, making sense of new input and linking
it with long-term memories.)
Explicit memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can
consciously know and “declare”. Frontal lobes and hippocampus process and store
these momeries. Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space,
time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Implicit memory (nondeclarative memory): retention independent of conscious
recollection 回忆. Cerebellum play a key role in forming and storing the implicit
memories created by classical conditioning.
Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or
picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. (our visual screen
clears quickly, as new images are superimposed 重叠 over old ones.)
Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is
elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Mnemonics: memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
Spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term
retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Hierarchies: composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrow
concepts and facts.
Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading
Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of a
Deep processing: encoding semantically 语义的, based on the meaning of the words;
tend to yields the best retention.
Hippocampus: a neural system located in the limbic system; which helps process explicit
memories for storage. One of the last brain structures to mature.
Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotional significant moment or event.
(Amygdala responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories)
Long-term potentiation (增强作用): an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief,
rapid stimulation. Believe to be a neural basis for learning and memorizing. Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Invisible memory, without your conscious awareness. Even subliminal stimuli can briefly
prime responses to later stimuli.
Mood-congruent 一致的 memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are
consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.
Serial position effect : our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories.
Retrograde amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one’s past.
Proactive interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new
Retroactive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old
Repression 压抑: in psychoanalysis 精神分析 theory, the basic defense mechanism that
banishes 放逐 from consciousness anxiety-arousing thought, feelings, and memories.