Textbook Notes (368,552)
Canada (161,962)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 101 (332)
Chapter

Memory.pdf

6 Pages
79 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Winter

Description
Module 23-26 Memory Terms: Memory: the persistence 储存 of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-blank test. Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. Relearn: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again. Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning. Storage: the retention 保留 of encoded information over time. Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digit of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences. Working memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial 视觉空间 information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. (it is an active desktop where your brain processes information, making sense of new input and linking it with long-term memories.) Explicit memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. Frontal lobes and hippocampus process and store these momeries. Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. Implicit memory (nondeclarative memory): retention independent of conscious recollection 回忆. Cerebellum play a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning. Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. (our visual screen clears quickly, as new images are superimposed 重叠 over old ones.) Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. Mnemonics: memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. Hierarchies: composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrow concepts and facts. Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading information. Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of a word. Deep processing: encoding semantically 语义的, based on the meaning of the words; tend to yields the best retention. Hippocampus: a neural system located in the limbic system; which helps process explicit memories for storage. One of the last brain structures to mature. Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotional significant moment or event. (Amygdala responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories) Long-term potentiation (增强作用): an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believe to be a neural basis for learning and memorizing. Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory. Invisible memory, without your conscious awareness. Even subliminal stimuli can briefly prime responses to later stimuli. Mood-congruent 一致的 memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. Serial position effect : our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories. Retrograde amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one’s past. Proactive interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. Retroactive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. Repression 压抑: in psychoanalysis 精神分析 theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes 放逐 from consciousness anxiety-arousing thought, feelings, and memories. Misi
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit