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PSYCH 101 (332)


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Richard Ennis

Module 23-26 Memory Terms: Memory: the persistence 储存 of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-blank test. Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. Relearn: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again. Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning. Storage: the retention 保留 of encoded information over time. Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digit of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences. Working memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial 视觉空间 information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. (it is an active desktop where your brain processes information, making sense of new input and linking it with long-term memories.) Explicit memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. Frontal lobes and hippocampus process and store these momeries. Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. Implicit memory (nondeclarative memory): retention independent of conscious recollection 回忆. Cerebellum play a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning. Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. (our visual screen clears quickly, as new images are superimposed 重叠 over old ones.) Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. Mnemonics: memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. Hierarchies: composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrow concepts and facts. Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading information. Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of a word. Deep processing: encoding semantically 语义的, based on the meaning of the words; tend to yields the best retention. Hippocampus: a neural system located in the limbic system; which helps process explicit memories for storage. One of the last brain structures to mature. Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotional significant moment or event. (Amygdala responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories) Long-term potentiation (增强作用): an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believe to be a neural basis for learning and memorizing. Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory. Invisible memory, without your conscious awareness. Even subliminal stimuli can briefly prime responses to later stimuli. Mood-congruent 一致的 memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. Serial position effect : our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories. Retrograde amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one’s past. Proactive interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. Retroactive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. Repression 压抑: in psychoanalysis 精神分析 theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes 放逐 from consciousness anxiety-arousing thought, feelings, and memories. Misi
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