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Chapter 2

PSYCH 101 Chapter 2: Textbook chapter 2

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Megan Mc Carthy

Module 2.1: Principles of scientific research ▪ Five characteristics of quality research: objective/valid/reliable, generalized, reduces bias, public, replicated ▪ Five characteristics of poor research: falsifiable, anecdotal, appeals to authority, data selection bias, appeal to common sense ▪ Anonymity: Responses are recorded without identifiable information ▪ Confidentiality: Results will only be seen by the researcher ▪ Reduce bias: With anonymity and confidentiality otherwise demand characteristics affect responses ▪ Convenience samples: Sample of individuals who are the most readily available ▪ Ecological validity: Results of the lab study can be applied in the natural environment ▪ Generalizability: Degree to which a set of results can be applied to different circumstances ▪ Hawthorne effect: Behaviour change that occurs as a result of being observed ▪ Objective measurements: Consistent across instruments and observers within allowed margin of error ▪ Operational definitions: Describe the specific procedures used to record observations ▪ Placebo effect: Measureable improvement that can’t be attributed to medical treatment ▪ Population: Group that researchers want to generalize about ▪ Random sample: Every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected ▪ Reliability: Consistent and stable answers in many points of time ▪ Replication: Repeating a study and finding similar results each time ▪ Sample: Select group of population members ▪ Validity: Degree to which an instrument measures what it claims to measure ▪ Variable: Something being measured Module 2.2: Scientific research designs ▪ Research designs influence how investigators: organize stimuli, make observations, and evaluate results ▪ All research designs include: variables, operational definitions, and data ▪ Third variable problem: an unmeasured variable is responsible for well-established correlation between 2 variables ▪ Confounding variable: Variable outside
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