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Chapter 4

PSYCH 101 Chapter 4: Textbook reading 3 - Chapter 4 modules

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University of Waterloo
Megan Mc Carthy

4.1: Sensation and perception Absolute threshold: Minimum stimulus needed to be reliably detected 50 of the time Difference threshold: Smallest difference between stimuli that can be reliably detected 50 of the time Divided attention: Paying attention to more than one stimulus at a time Doctrine of specific nerve energies: Different senses are separated in the brain Gestalt principles: Figureground, proximity, continuity, closure Inattentional blindness: Cant notice visible objects because attention is directed elsewhere Perception: Organizing sensed stimuli Selective attention: Focusing on one stimulus at a time Sensation: Detecting external events and turning the stimuli into neural signals Sensory adaptation: Reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulus Signal detection theory: Whether a stimulus is perceived depends on sensory experience and judgement Transduction: Receptors transform physical energy of stimuli into neural impulses 4.2: The visual system Sclera: White outer surface of eye Cornea: Clear layer covering the eye, allows for focus Pupil: Regulates light intensity by dilating (more light) and constricting (less light) Iris: Round muscle adjusting size of pupil (and gives eye colour) Lens: Behind pupil, clear structure focusing light onto retina Accommodation: Changes shape so light entering is refracted to focus when it hits the retina Transduction: Stimulation of photoreceptors that send neural signals to the brain Eye muscle: One of 6 muscles that help rotate the eye Retina: Lines inside of eye and has photoreceptors that absorb light and sends signals to the brain Rods: Periphery, sensitive under low light, black white Cones: Foveal, sensitive to wavelength difference (colour) Dark adaptation: Photoreceptors are sensitive to light when dim Fovea: Central part of retina where light is sharply focused Optic nerve: Bundle of fibres that transmit impulses from the retina to the brains visual centers TrichromaticYoungHelmholtz theory: Colour vision is determined 9by 3 types of cones sensitive to longmediumshort wavelengths Opponent processHering theory: We perceive colours in opposing pairs: RG, YW, BW Visual disorders Colour blindness: Cant distinguish between colours due to damaged cones Nearsightednessmyopia: Elongated eyeball causes corneal images to fall short of the retina (can see up close) FarsightednessHyperopia: Shortened eyeball cause corneal images to fall behind the retina (can see far away) Perception Ventral stream: Extends from the visual cortex (occipital lobe) to the anterior portion of the temporal lobe = object recognition Dorsal stream: Extends from the visual cortex (occipital lobe) to the parietal lobe = recognize and perform simple functions Perceptual constancy: Perceiving objects to have constant characteristics despite change in perspective Binocular depth cues: Distance cues based on differing perspectives of both eyes Convergence: Occurs when eye muscles contract so both eyes focus on a single object Retinal disparity: The difference in relative position of an object as seen by both eyes Monocular cues: Depth cues perceived by one eye alone
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