Textbook Notes (363,508)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (1,002)
PSYCH 101 (322)
Chapter 1

Chapter one Psychology: The Science of Behaviour .docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
John Campbell

Chapter 1 The Nature of psychology Psychology: scientific study of behavior and the mind - behavior: actions and responses we can directly observe - mind: internal states and processes (thoughts and feelings) Clinical psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders - hospitals, clinics, and private practice - e.g. biological bases of how adolescents with anxiety disorder make decisions using brain imaging techniques to compare Cognitive psychology: study of mental processes from a model that views the mind as an information processor - consciousness, attention, memory, decision making, and problem solving - psycholinguistics: an area that focuses on psychology of language - e.g. study how wording same info in diff ways affect people’s decisions Other subfields: Biopsychology - Biological underpinnings - How brain processes, genes, hormones influence actions, thoughts, feelings - How evolution shape our psychological capabilities (eg. Our capacity for advanced thinking and language) and behavioral tendencies (aggressive or altruistic) Developmental - physical, psychological, - how psychology social development over children’s lifespan decision- - infants, parenting styles, making change of mental abilities in strategies diff stages change in age Experimental - learning, sensory systems, - psychology perception, motivational states - lab experiments with animals Industrial- - behavior in workplace - organizational (I/O) - study leadership, teamwork, psychology factors that influence employees’ job satisfaction, work motivation, performance - help employers identify the best job applicants and design systems for evaluations of employee performance Personality psychology - study of human personality - - seek to identify core personality traits and how different traits relate and influence behavior - develop test to measure personality Social psychology - people’s thoughts, feelings, - e.g. study and behavior relating to decision making social world in groups - study how people influence each other, behave in groups, form impressions and attitudes - social relationships (prejudice, love, helping etc) Psychology’s Scientific Approach Science: process involving systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test beliefs about natural world - empirical evidence: evidence gained through experience and observation (manipulating with things and observe what happens) - observations are systematic Understanding behaviors: some pitfalls of everyday approaches - many ways such as conversations, media may provide us info and insights that can lead us to inaccurate beliefs - misconceptions can also come from our own faulty thinking - confirmation bias: selectively paying attention to info that is consistent with our beliefs Using Science to Minimize Everyday Pitfalls - usually use statistics to analyze data - examine behavior under highly controlled experimental conditions - publication reduces risk of confirmation bias, forcing scientists to modify beliefs and conduct further research - scientific progress: since is ultimately a self-correcting process, evolution of knowledge Thinking critically about behavior - many widely held beliefs about behavior are inaccurate - critical thinking: involves taking an active role in understanding the world rather than merely receiving info o know wt the info means, how it fits with your experiences o evaluate the validity of something presented to you as fact o is source credible and trustworthy ? are other explanations possible? The Jumbled-Word Challenge - too broad and absolute Of Astrology and Asstrology: Potential Costs of uncritical thinking - misconceptions can add up and contribute to an increasingly misguided view of how the world operates - people uncritically accept many misconceptions that have harmful consequences - e.g. astrologers, fortune tellers etc - many people may make major life decisions based on fortune tellers’ advice - pseudoscience : field incorporating astrology, graphology, rumpology etc Psychology’s goals Four main goals: 1. describe how people and other animals behave 2. explain and understand the causes of these behaviours 3. Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. Influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare - control causes to control behavior Psychology as a basic and applied science Basic research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake o to describe how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behavior o lab or real-world setting Applied research: solve specific practical problems o uses principals discovered through basic research to solve practical problems Psychology’s broad scope: A simple framework Levels of analysis: behavior and its causes examined at - biological level: brain processes, genetic influences - psychological level: our thoughts, feelings, and motives - environmental level: past and current physical and social environments to which we are exposed Mind-body and Nature-Nurture interactions - mind-body interactions: relations b/t mental process in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems o eg. Dwell on the negative -> stress hormones - modern research increasingly reveals that nature and nurture interact Perspectives on Behaviour - psychology has roots in varied disciplines: philosophy, medicine, biological and physical sciences - perspectives Psychology’s Intellectual Roots Mind-body dualism: early philosophers’ belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body o French philosopher and scientist Rene Descartes proposed that mind and body interact through tiny pineal gland o Dualism: implied no amount of research on the physical body can unravel nonphysical mind Monism: mind and body are one, mind is not a separate spiritual entity o mental events correspond to physical events in brain o Thomas Hobbes^ o John Locke and other philosophers from school of British empiricism(through observation and experience): all ideas and knowledge gained through sense  This idea strengthened development of modern science  By 1870, European researchers performing experiments o psychophysics: new field established in mid-1800s, study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli o Charles Darwin: evolution implied that the mind was not a spiritual entity but product of biological continuity between humans and other species Early Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism - Wilhelm Wundt: est.ed first experimental psychology lab at uni of Leipzig o Mind could be studied by breaking it down into its basic components o Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements o Introspection: study sensations (basic elements of consciousness), exposed participants to all sorts of sensory stimuli – lights, sounds, tastes o Method criticized as being too subjective o However, established scientific tradition for studying cognitive processes - Functionalism: study the functions of consciousness rather than structure o Stressed importance of adaptation in helping organisms survive and reproduce in their environment o William James: include the study of various biological and mental processes o Tradition endures in cognitive psychology (mental process) & evolutionary psychology (emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior) The Psychodynamic perspective: The forces within Psychodynamic perspective: - searches for the causes of behavior within the inner working of our personality(our unique pattern of traits, emotions, and motives) - emphasizing the role of unconscious processes Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Great Challenge - treated patients with free association: patient expressed any thoughts that came to mind - convinced that an unconscious part of mind influences behavior - psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces - humans have inborn sexual and aggressive drives that are punished in childhood causing anxiety  so we develop defense mechanisms to help us cope with anxiety and pain of traumatic events - Repression = primary defense mechanism - Stimulated research on topics such as dreams, memory, aggression and mental disorders Modern Psychodynamic Theory - unconscious and conscious aspects of personality influence behavior but downplay role of hidden sexual and aggressive motives - focus more on how early relationships with fam and other caregivers shape their views on themselves (how views also unconsciously influence a person’s relationships with others) The behavioral perspective: The power of the environment Behavioral perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in governing actions - habits learned from previous life experiences and by stimuli in environment Origins of the Behavioral Perspective - rooted from philosophical school of British empiricism o John Locke: humans born with clean slate which experiences are then written (human nature shaped by enviro) - Ivan Pavlov: learning occurs when events are associated with each other o Dogs salivate to stimulus paired with food (tone) - Edward Thorndike: o Law of effect: responses followed by satisfying consequences will be more likely to recur o Experience moulds behavior Behaviorism - school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behavior through learning - John B Watson: strongly opposed the ‘mentalism’ of structuralists, functionalists, psychoanalysts o Argued that proper subject matter of psychology was observable behavior, not unobservable inner consciousness o Humans are products of learning experiences - B.F. Skinner: didn’t deny that people have thoughts and feelings o Believed that the real causes of behavior reside in the outer world o Mice experiment
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.