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Steve Spencer

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Psychology 101- Textbook Notes Module 45: The Psychoanalytic Perspective  Personality- an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting  Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality  Free association- a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing  Psychoanalysis- Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions  Unconscious- Freud believed that the mind is mostly hidden. It is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories  Freud believed that our unconscious thoughts influenced us in our daily lives without us being aware of them at all. Also believed that our personality is the result of our efforts to resolve this basic conflict – to express these impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment. Freud proposed three interacting systems: o Id- contains reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification o Ego- the largely conscious, “executive” part of the personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain o Superego- the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and future aspirations  Psychosexual stages- childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones o Oral (0-18 months) – Pleasure centers on the mouth (sucking, biting, chewing) o Anal (18-36 months) – Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control o Phallic (3-6 years) – Pleasure zone is in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings o Latency (6-puberty) – Dormant sexual feelings o Genital (puberty on) – Maturation of sexual interests  Freud believed that children identified with the same-sex parent out of fear/sexual frustration  Defense mechanisms- reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality 1. Repression- banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness 2. Regression- individual faced with anxiety will retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage 3. Reaction formation- ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposite (eg. Timid becomes daring) 4. Projection- people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others 5. Rationalization- offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions 6. Displacement- shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet 7. Denial- people refuse to believe or even perceive painful realities  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes  Repression is now considered a “myth” because there are almost no studies that prove a person went through a traumatic event, forgot about it, and then remembered it at a later date. Things like that haunt you in your conscious memory for a very long time, and are never truly forgotten Module 46: The Humanistic Perspective  Self-actualization- according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem are achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential  Maslow studied healthy people (rather than troubled clinical cases like Freud) that were noted for their rich and productive lives. They were self-aware and self- accepting, open and spontaneous, loving and caring, etc. Interests were problem- centered rather than self-centered.  Carl Rogers believed people are basically good that that growth-promoting climate required genuineness (being open with own feelings), acceptance (unconditional positive regard = total acceptance towards another person), and empathy (sharing and mirroring our feelings and reflecting our meanings)  Self-concept- all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” Module 4: Neural and Hormonal Systems  Biological Psychology- concerned with the links between biology and behavior  Neuron- a nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system  Sensory Neurons- carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord  Motor Neurons- carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands  Interneurons- neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs  Dendrite- branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon- passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands  Myelin sheath- layer of fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables greater transmission speed of impulses as it hops from one node to the next  If the myelin sheath deteriorates, multiple sclerosis will result. Communication to the muscles slow down and eventually muscle control is lost  Our brains are more complex than a computer system but are infinitely slower  Action Potential- neural impulse; brief electrical charge that travels down an axon  Resting potential- positive outside/negative inside state  Axon’s surface is selectively permeable, but when a neuron fires the first bit of the axon opens its gate and the (Na ) flood through the membrane. This depolarizes that section of the axon, causing the axon’s next channel to open, and then the next, like dominoes each tripping the next. During the refractory period the neuron pumps the positively charged ions back outside  Threshold- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse  Neurons react in an all-or-none response. Once they are triggered they must complete the course they are on. We determine a strong hit from a light tap because more neurons will fire and more often  Synapse- the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft  Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse  Reuptake- a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron  Endorphins- natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure (morphine)  Nervous System- all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems  Central Nervous System- the brain and spinal cord  Peripheral Nervous System- sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body o Somatic nervous system- division of the peripheral nervous system that controls skeletal muscles (voluntary control) o Autonomic nervous system- controls the glands and muscles of internal organs (involuntary movements)  Sympathetic nervous system- arouses the body in stressful situations  Parasympathetic nervous system- calms the body and conserves energy  Endocrine system- set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream o Adrenal glands- sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress o Pituitary glands- in the brain region, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands Module 5: Tools of Discovery  PET (positron emission tomography)- visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images to soft tissue (shows brain anatomy)  fMRI (functional MRI)- technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity (shows brain function)  Brainstem- oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull (responsible for automatic survival functions)  Medulla- base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing o Pons- coordinate movements  Reticular formation- nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal  Thalamus- directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla  Cerebellum- processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance  Limbic System- neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives o Amygdala- neural clusters that are linked to emotion o Hypothalamus- lies below the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities (eating, body temp, etc), helps govern the endocrine system, and is linked to emotion and reward Module 6: The Cerebral Cortex and Our Divided Brain  Cerebral Cortex-interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center  Glial cells- cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. Provide nutrients and insulating myelin, guide neural connections, and mop up ions and neurotransmitters  Frontal lobes- lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments  Parietal lobes- lying at the top of the head and towards the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position  Occipital lobes- lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields  Temporal lobes- lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear  Motor cortex- area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movement  Sensory cortex- area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations  Association areas- not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking  Plasticity- the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, be reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience  Neurogenesis- formation of new neurons  Corpus collosum- large band of neural fibers that connect the two brain hemispheres and carry messages between them  Split brain- a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them Module 37: Hunger  The appetite hormones: o Insulin: secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose o Leptin: secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger o Orexin: secreted by hypothalamus; hunger-triggering hormone o Ghrelin: secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain o Obestatin: secreted by stomach; sends “I’m full” signals to the brain o PYY: digestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” to the brain o Anorexia nervosa- an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feels fat and continues to starve themselves o Bulimia nervosa- an eating disorder characterized by episodes of over- eating, usually high calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise o Binge-eating disorder- significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa SAR: Split Brain  Once the corpus callosum had been severed, it became clear that visual information no longer moved between the two sides o Image projected to the right eye was detected by the left hemisphere and could be recalled by the brain o Image projected to the left side was not detected by the right hemisphere by they could draw/pick out the correct object that matched the word they were shown  The left brain is dominant for language and speech  The right brain excels at visual-motor tasks  Several bridges of neurons (commissures) that connect the hemispheres o Able to transfer visual information between hemispheres in monkeys but not in humans (shows they have different uses in different species)  The left hemisphere generates many false memories, where the right brain is much more accurate in lying down accurate memories Module 8: Sleep and Dreams  Circadian rhythm- biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle  Bright light in the morning tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins which trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), this decreases the production of melatonin (sleep-inducing hormone)  REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep)- a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active  Yawning is a response to reduced brain metabolism; it stretches you neck muscles and increases heart rate which increases alertness  Alpha waves- relatively slow brain waves of relaxed, awake state  Delta waves- large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep  Sleep patterns can be influences by genetics or culture  On average, teens are supposed to sleep around 8 hours/night, most fall short of that. Increased drowsiness, weight gain, irritability, and increased illnesses can occur. “Sleep debt” occurs where it takes weeks to catch up on lost sleep  Sleep theories o Sleep protects  Humans who didn’t try to navigate around rocks and cliffs at night were more likely to leave descendants o Sleep helps us recuperate  Helps restore and repair brain tissue o Sleep is for making memories  Restoring and rebuilding out fading memories of our day’s experiences o Sleep feeds creative thinking  After working on a task, then sleeping on it, people solve problems more insightfully than those who stay awake o Sleep may play a role in the growth process  During deep sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone  Sleep disorders o Insomnia - recurring problems in falling or staying asleep o Narcolepsy - uncontrollable sleep attacks; the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times - it is a brain disease, may be effectively relieved by a drug that mimics the missing orexin and can sneak through the brain-blood barrier o Sleep apnea - temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings o Night terrors - high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; occur during Stage 4 of sleep and are seldom remembered  Manifest content- according to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream  Sensory stimuli in our sleeping environment may intrude and even in our REM sleep we have some awareness to changes in the external environment (eg. Being sprayed in the face then dreaming about a waterfall)  Why Do We Dream? o To satisfy our own wishes  Dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings  Latent content- the underlying meaning of a dream o To file away memories  Dreams may help sift, sort and fix the day’s experiences into memories o To develop and preserve neural pathways  The brain activity associated with REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation o To make sense of neural static  Neural activity is random, and dreams are the brain’s way of trying to make sense of it o To reflect cognitive development  Part of brain maturation and cognitive development  REM rebound- the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation Module 17: Introduction to Sensation and Perception  Sensation- process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment  Perception- process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events  Bottom-up processing- analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information  Top-down processing- information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations  Psychophysics- the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them  Absolute threshold- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time  Signal detection theory- a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experience, expectations, motivations, and alertness  Subliminal- below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness  Priming- the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response  Much of our information processing occurs automatically, out of sight, off the radar screen of our conscious mind  Difference threshold- the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference  Weber’s law- the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)  Sensory adaptation- diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation o We only perceive the world as it changes Module 18: Vision  Transduction- conversion of one form of energy to another  Wavelength- distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next  Hue- dimension of colour determined by the wavelength of light  Intensity- the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude  The Eye o Pupil- adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters o Iris- a ring of muscle tissue that forms the coloured portion of the eye and controls the size of the pupil opening o Lens- transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus the images o Retina- light-sensitive inner surface of the eye o Accommodation- process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects  The Retina o Rods- retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision o Cones- concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions (colour) o Optic nerve- carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain o Blind spot- the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located there o Fovea- central focal point in the retina around which the cones cluster  The retina processes information, routing it via the thalamus then to the brain’s cortex  Feature detector- nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement  Parallel processing- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision  Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-colour) theory- theory that the retina contains 3 different colour receptors- one most sensitive to red, and green, and blue- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any colour  Opponent-process theory- the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable colour vision Module 19: Hearing  Auditory- sense or act of hearing  We can feel and hear the vibrations of the sound waves moving through the air. The ear then transforms the vibrating air into nerve impulses, which our brain decodes as sound  Frequency- number of complete wavelengths that pass a point at a given time  Pitch- tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency  The outer ear channels the sound waves into the eardrum (vibrates with the waves). Middle ear transmits the vibrations to the cochlea (made up of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup) in the inner ear. The waves cause the cochlea to vibrate, jostling the fluid in the tube. This moves hair cells which triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve cells, whose axons converge to form the auditory nerve which sends a message to our brain  The brain can interpret loudness from the number of activated nerve cells  Place theory-the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated  Frequency theory- the theory that the rate of nerve impulses travelling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch  Conduction hearing loss- hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea  Sensorineural hearing loss- hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerve; also called nerve deafness  Cochlear implant- a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea Module 20: Other Senses  Touch o Kinesthesis- the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts o Vestibular sense- the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance o Semicircular canals and vestibular sacs contain fluids which move when your head moves, allowing to orient yourself. If you spin in a circle and then stop really fast, the liquid takes a moment to return to an equilibrium so your body still feels like it’s spinning (dizzy)  Pain o Gate-control theory- the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals travelling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain o Our body releases natural endorphins which help ease pain o Sometimes placebo drugs can be administered so the patient believes that their pain is being treated, even though it is all psychological. The brain believes that those drugs are in the system so it releases more naturally  Taste o Taste buds have receptors that bind with the chemicals in the food and send a signal to your brain o Sensory interaction- the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste  Smell o We smell something when molecules of a substance carried in the air reach a tiny cluster of 5 million or more receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity Module 23: Classical Conditioning  Associative learning- learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences  Pavlov discovered that putting food in a dog’s mouth caused him to salivate, and then the dog was salivating not only to the taste of food, but also the sight of the food or dish, the person delivering the food or the footsteps of the person delivering the food  Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events o Unconditioned response (UR)- the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth o Unconditioned stimulus (US)- a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically – triggers a response o Conditioned response (CR)- the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) o Conditioned stimulus (CS)- an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response o Acquisition- the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response  Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce-by responding to cues that help it gain food, avoid dangers, locate mates, and produce offspring  Higher-order conditioning- a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus  Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response  Spontaneous recovery- the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response  Generalization- the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses  Discrimination- the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus  We are conditioned to avoid a certain type of food if we have a negative experience with it (eg. When someone eats bad mussels and get sick after, they will probably try to avoid mussels and will be sickened by the sight of them)  Learning enables animals to adapt to their environment Module 24: Operant Conditioning  Associative learning- learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences  Classical conditioning forms association between stimuli o Respondent behaviour- occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus  Operant conditioning strengthens behaviour if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher o Operant behaviour- operates on the environment, producing consequences  Is the organism learning associations between events it does not control (classical conditioning)? Or is it learning associations between its behaviour and resulting events (operant conditioning)?  Law of Effect- Thorndikes principle that behaviours followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely  Operant chamber- aka Skinner box; contains a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking  Learning- relatively permanent change in an organism’s behaviour due to experience  Shaping- reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour  Reinforcer- any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows  Positive reinforcement- increasing behaviours by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Any stimulus that, presented after a response, strengthens the response  Negative reinforcement- increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, removed after a response, strengthens the reposnse. This is not a form of punishment  Primary reinforcer- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need  Conditioned reinforcer- a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer  Continuous reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs  Partial (intermittent) reinforcement- reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement  Fixed-ratio schedules- a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses  Variable-ratio schedules a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  Fixed-interval schedule- a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  Variable-interval schedule- a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  Punishment- an event that decreases the behaviour that it follows 1. Punished behaviour is suppressed, not forgotten 2. Punishment teaches discrimination 3. Punishment can teach fear 4. Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems  Punishment tells you what not to do, reinforcement tells you what to do  Cognitive map- a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment  Latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it  Intrinsic motivation- a desire to perform a behaviour effectively for its own sake  Extrinsic motivation- a desire to perform a behaviour to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment  Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Module 25: Learning by Observation  Observational learning- learning by observing others  Modeling- the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour  Mirror neurons- frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so  Prosocial behaviour- positive, constructive, helpful, behaviour. The opposite of antisocial behaviour  Violence viewed on TV can lead to aggressive behaviour in children Module 32: Language and Thought  Phonemes- in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit  Morpheme- in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be word or a part of a word  Semantics- the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also the study of meaning  Syntax- the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language  Babbling stage- beginning around 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language  One-word stage- beginning around 1 year, a child speaks mostly in single words  Two-word stage- beginning around 2 years, a child speaks in most two work sentences  Telegraphic speech- early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs Approximate month Stage 4 Babbles many speech sounds 10 Babbling resembles household language 12 One-word stage 24 Two-word, telegraphic stage 24+ Language develops rapidly into complex sentences  The older you are when you begin learning a new language, the harder it is to pick it up  Aphasia- impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area o Broca’s area- controls language expression – an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, the directs the muscle movements involved in speech o Wernicke’s area- controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe  Linguistic determinism- Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think Module 13: Prenatal Development and the Newborn  Zygote- the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo  Embryo- the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month  Fetus- developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth  At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development  The placenta transports nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus and also screens out many potentially harmful substances  Teratogens- agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)- physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptom’s include noticeable facial misproportions  Habituation- decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner Module 14: Infancy and Childhood  Maturation- biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviour, relatively uninfluenced by experience  Cognition- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating  Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information  Assimilation- interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas  Accommodation- adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth-2 years Sensorimotor - Object permanence Experiencing the world through - Stranger anxiety senses and actions 2-6 or 7 Preoperational - Pretend play Representing things with words - Egocentrism and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning 7-11 Concrete operational - Conservation Thinking logically about - Mathematical concrete events; grasping transformations concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations 12-adulthood Formal operational - Abstract logic Abstract reasoning - Potential for mature moral reasoning  Sensorimotor stage- the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities  Object permanence- the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived  Preoperational stage- the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic  Conservation- the principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects  Egocentric- the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view  Theory of mind-people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviours these might predict  Concrete operational stage-the stage during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete concepts  Formal operational- the stage during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts  Stanger anxiety- the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months  The brain, mind, and social-emotional behaviour develop together  Attachment- an emotional tie with another person  Critical period- an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development  Imprinting- the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life  Basic trust- a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy  Self-concept- our understanding and evaluation of who we are  Three parenting styles: o Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience o Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment o Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules Module 15: Adolescence  Adolescence- the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence  Puberty- the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing  Menarche- first menstrual period  Three basic levels of moral thinking: o Preconventional morality; before age 9, most children’s morality focuses on self-interest: they obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards o Conventional morality; by early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules o Postconventional morality; with the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, people may reach a third moral level. Actions are judged “right” because they flow from people’s rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles  Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage (approx. age) Issue Description of task Infancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (to 1 year) develop a sense of basic trust Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise their will and (1-3) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschool Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and (3-6) carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent Elementary School Industry vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6-puberty) inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior Adolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of (teen-20) confusion self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Young adults struggle to form close (20-early 40) relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. In middle age, people discover a sense of (40-60) stagnation contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose Late Adulthood Integrity vs. despair Reflecting on his or her life, an older (60 and up) adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure  Identity- one’s sense of self  Intimacy- the ability to form close, loving relationships  Emerging adulthood- a period from the late teens to early 20’s, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood Module 16: Adulthood, and Reflections on Developmental Issues  Menopause- the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines  Cross-sectional studies- a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another  Longitudinal study- research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period  Crystallized intelligence- our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age  Fluid intelligence- our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during
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