PSYCH 101 LECTURE
March 27 , 2014
- Cognitive perspective: mental illness originates from interruption in cognitive functions
- Learned maladaptive though patterns
- There aren’t people that think about different perspectives.
- Usually there’s something biologic, cognitive, and behavioural and the balance may be
different for different people and some might have lot of impairment and others may
have a small impairment.
- Behavioural perspective: mental illness originates from learned maladaptive
- The idea is to think that maybe behaviours cause you to get a mental disorder, or keep it
going/making it worse.
- DEPRESSION :
- Behavioural perspective: focused on the essence of depression is a low rate of behavior
and this causes the other symptoms.
- Cognitive perspective: low rate of behavior caused by core schemas, that may be
maladaptive, thinking im defective, or thinking what you do leads to failure. Theses
maladaptive thought patterns naturally may not allow you to do what you do normally.
- Predisposing causes – in place before onset of disorder (make a person vulnerable to
getting a disorder, this may be also learned beliefs)
- Precipitating causes – immediate events that bring on disorder (stressor) ( perceived
threat, see in a natural disaster somewhere and thinking it may happen to them, when
predisposition is very high the perception can be very small)
- Perpetuating causes – consequences of disorder (keeps the disorder going) (lack of
friends, lack of social support, relevant when talking about panic disorder.
Gender Differences in Prevalence
- Typically women experience more mental more disorders compared to men.
- Women ( depression, anxiety)
- Men ( anti-social personality, ADHD, autism)
- Women are more likely to talk about it
- Stereotype, perception for men that if they talk about it they will be seen less of a man.
- Men report less psychological distress than women, - Don’t admit distress? Physiological vs. psychological
- Trade-off? Men tend to self-medicate more often than women, men are known to use or
abuse alcohol when experiencing these problems, men are also more likely to report
anger about what’s going on than to stress/distress about it.
Differences in Experiences
- Men and women have different social experiences
- Women :
. Abuse from spouses
. Abuse in childhood
. Traditional roles
- Importance of employment
- Women with gender specific jobs have less signs of depression, because men are also
starting to those jobs.
Issues with Diagnosis
- ^ aims to have strong reliability, validity,
- Labeling people : dangerous but sometimes necessary
- Biggest problem with labelling people is that It is stigmatized
- Anxiety: diffuse, vague feelings of fear
- Anxiety disorder : irrational, uncontrollable, and disruptive
- Genetic disorders play a 30-50% role
GAD (generalized anxiety disorder):
- Constant worry that seriously interferes with functioning.
- Comes with many physical symptoms – headaches, stomach-aches, etc
- Causes are relatively unknown, biological factors play a big role.
- Diagnosis/ prevalence: can start at any point in life, as early as childhood.
- Occurs more often in women than in men.
- Treatment: cognitive behavioural therapy. + medication (SSRI’s) (beta blockers)
- What is CBT? Evidence-based treatment of emotional and behavioural problems.
Phobias: - Irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation. Fear of being harmed somehow.
- Classical conditioning model: problems with this is that there is no memory or no phobia.
- Seligman’s preparedness theory: explains why some phobias more common.
- Over 10% of population (common!)
- Women > men
- Key: even though we see that 10% are diagnosed with phobias, and only 10% of those
become lifelong phobias.
- Exposure treatment - progressive exposure
- Counter-conditioning – taught new response to feared object.( think about that object
OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder):
Definition: obsessions-irrational, disturbing thoughts
Compulsions-repetitive actions to alleviate obsessions.
Come up with comforting beliefs for yourself to deal with these things.
- Can involve obsessions, compulsions or both.
- Causes: caudate nucleus: in the basal ganglia, brain area associated with heightened
activity and motor activity as well as repetitive habitual ones. Repulsive compulsive
behaviours problem is directionality, but it is very unclear but there is associations with
ocd and this.
- Insufficient serotonin: might contribute to obsessive compulsive disorder,
- NOT caused parenting. Thought disorganized bad parenting might have caused this but
doesn’t relate or connect to OCD. But disorganized parenting will contribute to any type
of mental illnesses.
- Howie said he was embarrassed and humiliated
- Kept secret
- Began in childhood
- Terror, irrational, towards something that has mental illnesses.
- 1/100 adults, 1/200 kids Treatment:
- CBT and SSRI’s what keeps serotonin active longer in the brain.
- Debilitating anxiety and fear arise frequently and without reasonable cause (panic
- Racing heartbeat, difficulty breathing, terror, dizziness etc. … (feelings when having a
- True panic disorder: for example if there is more people than people would like they
have a panic attack
- Very frightening – suffers live in fear of attacks
. Can lead to agoraphobia