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PSYCH 101 (321)

MODULE 1.docx

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University of Waterloo
Stephanie Denison

MODULE 1 Anthropomorphism: the act of treating objects or animals like people Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour, thought and experience • Involves the study of behaviour, which can include perceptions, thoughts & emotions • It employs scientific method Scientific Method: a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to explain them & using the theories to make predictions Hypothesis: a testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured (you don’t prove a hypothesis) • Scientific hypotheses must be testable Pseudoscience: the ideas that are represented as science but do not actually utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure Theory: an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole • Theories are not the same thing as opinions or beliefs • All theories are not equally plausible • A measure of a good theory is not the number of people that believe it to be true Biopsychosocial Model: a means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors Scientific Literacy: the ability to understand, analyze & apply scientific information Critical Thinking: exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others, and with our own assumptions and beliefs • It doesn’t guarantee a correct answer, perhaps an unpleasant one, but it helps find and justify good answers Core Set of Habits & Skills for Developing Critical Thinking: 1. Be curious 2. Examine the nature & source of the evidence 3. Examine assumptions and biases 4. Tolerate ambiguity 5. Avoid overly emotional thinking 6. Consider alternative viewpoints Empiricism: a philosophical tenet that knowledge come through experience Determinism: the belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships Zeitgeist: a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history Materialism: the belief that humans and other living beings are composed exclusively of physical matter Dualism: the belief that there are properties of humans that are not material Psychophysics: the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of the world Clinical Psychology: the field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychoanalysis: a psychological approach that attempts to explain how behaviour and person
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