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MODULE 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 101
Professor
Stephanie Denison

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Module 10 Developmental Psychology: the study of change and stability of human physical, cognitive,  social and behavioural characteristics across the life span Cross­Sectional Design: used to measure and compare samples of people at different ages at a  given point of time Longitudinal Design: follows the development of the same set of individuals through time   Attrition: occurs when participants stop returning mail or phone calls, become ineligible or quit  participating  Cohort Effects: are consequences of being born in a particular way or narrow range of years  Stages: transitions marked by rapid shifts in thinking and behaving, as well as abilities Sensitive Period: a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental  stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability   Germinal Stage: the first phase of prenatal development and spans from conception to two  weeks Embryonic Stage:  spans from two to eight weeks, during which time the embryo begins  developing major physical structures Fetal Stage: spans week eight through birth, during which time the skeletal, organ and nervous  systems become more developed and specialized Teratogen: a substance, such as a drug, that is capable of producing physical defects Synaptic Pruning: the loss of weak nerve cell connections  Cognitive Development: the study of changes in memory, thought, and reasoning processes  that occur throughout the life span Assimilation: children add new information, but interpret it based on what they already know Accommodation: when children modify their belief structures based on an experience Sensorimotor Stage: (birth­2 yrs.) the period in which infants’ thinking and understanding  about the world is based on sensory experiences and physical actions they perform on objects Object Permanence: the ability to understand that objects exist even when they cannot be seen  or touched Preoperational Stage: (2­7 yrs.) characterized by understanding of symbols, pretend play, and  mastery of the concept of conservation Conservation: the knowledge that the quantity or amount of an object is not related to the  physical arrangement or appearance of that object Concrete Operational: (7­11 yrs.) when children develop skills in using and manipulating  numbers as well as logical thinking  Formal Operational: (11 yrs.­adulthood) the development of advanced cognitive processes  such as abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking  Core Knowledge Hypothesis: a view on development proposing that infants have inborn  abilities for understanding some key aspects of their environment  Habituation: a decrease in responding when repeating exposure to an event Dishabituation: an increase in responsiveness with the presentation of a new stimulus The Zone of Proximal Development: development is ideal when a child attempts skills and  activities that are just beyond what he or she can do alone, but the child has guidance from  adults who are attentive to his or her progress Scaffolding: the approach to teaching in which the teacher matches guidance to the learner or  the student’s needs Attachment: an enduring emotional bond formed between individuals  Egocentric: they perceive and interpret the world in terms of the self  Theory of Mind: the ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs and expectations of others, and to  understand that these can be different from one’s own Temperament: their general emotional reactivity, which is regarded as the root from which  several aspects of adult personality grow  Erikson’s Stages of Psychological Development  AGE  DEVELOPMENT Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust: developing a sense of trust  & security toward caregivers
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