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PSYCH 101 - Module 1: Introducing Psychology & Research Methods

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
Stephanie Denison
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYCH  101  –  Introductory  Psychology     Module  1:  Introducing  Psychology  and  Research  Methods     Anthropomorphism:  The  art  of  treating  objects  or  animals  like  people.     Psychology:  The  scientific  study  of  behavior,  thought,  and  experience.     The  Scientific  Method:  A  way  of  learning  about  the  world  through  collecting  observations,   proposing  explanations  for  the  observations,  developing  theories  to  explain  them,  and  using  the   theories  to  make  predictions.   • Theory  à  hypothesis  à  test  hypothesis  à  confirm/reject  hypothesis     Hypothesis:  A  testable  prediction  about  processes  that  can  be  observed  and  measured.   • A  testable  hypothesis  is  not  proven,  but  either  confirmed  or  rejected     Pseudoscience:  Refers  to  ideas  that  are  presented  as  science  but  do  not  actually  utilize  basic   principles  of  scientific  thinking  or  procedure.     Theory:  An  explanation  for  a  broad  range  of  observations  that  also  generates  new  hypotheses  and   integrates  numerous  findings  into  a  coherent  whole.   • Theory  testing  eventually  leads  back  to  the  theory  from  wh ich  it  was  based   • Built  from  hypotheses  that  are  tested  and  confirmed   • Must  be  falsifiable  or  able  to  be  proven  false  with  new  evidence   • Not  the  same  thing  as  opinions  or  beliefs   • A  measure  of  a  good  theory  is  not  the  number  of  people  who  believe  it  to  be  true     The  Biopsychosocial  Model :  A  means  of  explaining  behavior  as  a  product  of  biological,   psychological,  and  sociocultural  factors.   • Biological  influences  include  chemicals,  hormones,  brain  structure,  drug  effects   • Social  situations,  family  and  peers  influence  thoughts,  feelings,  and  behavior   • Ethnicity  and  gender  influence  behavior   • Thoughts,  experiences,  emotions,  and  personality  constitute  psychological  makeup   • Multiple  perspectives  are  needed  to  fully  explain  behavior     Perspective   Focus   Biological   Genes,  brain  anatomy  and  function,  evolution   Psychological   Behavior,  perception,  thought,  experience   Sociocultural   Interpersonal  relationships,  families,  groups,  ethnicities,  societies     Scientific  Literacy:  The  ability  to  understand,  analyze,  and  apply  scientific   information.   • Involves  gathering  knowledge,  explaining  it  using  scientific  terms  and  concepts,  using  critical   thinking,  and  applying  and  using  information     Being  a  psychologist  requires  having  a  certain  set  of  attitudes  or  dispositions,  including:   • Curiosity  to  ask  thoughtful  questions   • Ability  to  look  beyond  simple  answers   • Skepticism  towards  outlandish  claims   • Being  reflective   • Knowing  why  we  believe  what  we  believe,  and  being  able  to  communicate  that  to  others     Critical  Thinking:  Exercising  curiosity  and  skepticism  when  evaluating  the  claims  of  others,  and   with  our  own  assumptions  and  beliefs.   • Apply  scientific  methods  carefully   • Examine  biases  and  assumptions   • Tolerate  ambiguity/inconclusive  evidence   • Avoid  overly  emotional  thinking   • Examine  the  nature  and  source  o f  evidence   • Consider  alternative  viewpoints/interpretations   • Cannot  guarantee  a  correct  answer  but  can  find  and  justify  good  answers     Principle  of  Parsimony:  The  simplest  of  all  competing  explanations  of  a  phenomenon  should  be  the   one  we  accept.     Essentialism:  The  human  tendency  to  ascribe  significance  to  certain  instances  of  some  objects  but   not  others.   • Physical  objects  have  an  essence  or  invisible  property  that  makes  them  special  in  the  eye  of   the  beholder     Empiricism:  Knowledge  comes  through  experience  and  careful  observation,  not  common  sense  or   speculation.     Determinism:  All  events  are  governed  by  lawful  cause-­‐and-­‐effect  relationships.   • Behavior  is  determined  by  internal  and  external  influences     Zeitgeist:  A  general  set  of  beliefs  of  a  particular  culture  at  a  specific  time  in  history.     Materialism:  The  belief  that  humans  and  other  living  beings  are  composed  exclusively  of  physical   matter.   • Belief  that  we  lack  a  self -­‐conscious,  self-­‐controlling  soul     Dualism:  Belief  that  there  are  properties  of  humans  that  are  not  material,  such  as  the  mind  or  the   soul     Psychophysics:  The  study  of  the  relationship  between  the  physical  world  and  its  mental   representation.   • Coined  by  Gustav  Fechner  in  the  1800s,  who  studied  sensation  and  perception,  and  was   interested  in  the  natural  world  of  energy  and  moving  objects     Natural  Selection:  Within  a  breeding  population,  the  genetically  inherited  traits  that  contribute  to   survival  and  reproductive  success  flourish  and  are  passed  on  to  progeny.   • Proposed  to  Charles  Darwin  in  the  1800s  as  a  way  of  explaining  evolution  and  the  diversity   of  life  on  earth   • Shapes  behavior  as  well  as  physical  traits   • Influences  emotional  expressions     Clinical  Psychology:  Concentrates  on  the  diagnosis  and  treatment  of  psychological  disorders.     Brain  Localization:  Certain  parts  of  the  brain  control  specific  mental  abilities  and  personality   characteristics.     Phrenology:  The  belief  that  the  brain  consists  of  27  organs  that  correspond  to  mental  traits  and   dispositions.   • These  personalities  and  mental  capacities  could  b e  measured  by  the  contours,  bumps,  and   ridges  distributed  across  the  surface  of  the  skull   • Proposed  by  Franz  Gall  and  Johann  Spurzheim     Another  approach  to  localization  involved  the  study  of  brain  injuries  and  the  ways  that  they  affect   behavior.     Broca’s  Area:  The  area  of  the  brain  where  speech  production  is  localized.   • Identified  by  Paul  Broca  when  studying  a  patient  named  Tan  who  could  hear  and   understand  perfectly  but  not  speak     Wernicke’s  Area :  Identified  by  Karl  Wernicke  is  1874.  Patients  with  damage  to  this  area  could   speak  in  sentences  that  sounded  normal,  but  contained  unusual  or  made -­‐up  words.     Franz  Mesmer  believed  that  disease  and  insanity  could  be  cured  by  prolonged  exposure  to  magnets,   which  redirected  the  flow  of  metallic  fluids  in  the  body.   • Used  trances  to  “cure”  patients     Psychosomatic  Medicine:  Cures  that  are  due  to  belief  in  the  treatment,  not  by  proper   medical/scientific  reasons.     Sigmund  Freud  used  hypnosis  to  treat  patients,  including  those  with  hysterical  paralysis,  leading  to   the  development  of  psychoanalysis.     Psychoanalysis:  Attempts  to  explain  how  unconscious  processes  influence  behavior  and  personality.   • Conscious  experience  includes  perceptions,  thoughts,  a  sense  of  self,  the  sense  that  we  are  in   control  of  ourselves   • Unconscious  mind  contains  forgotten  episodes  from  early  childhood,  urges  to  fulfill  sexual   and  aggressive  impulses   • Influence  of  unconscious  urges  could  restrict  the  use  of  a  body  part,  which  is  called   hysterical/psychosomatic  paralysis   • Hypnosis  could  be  used  to  determine  wh at  caused  the  psychosomatic  conditions     Medical  Model:  Uses  medical  ideas  to  treat  disorders  of  emotions,  thought,  and  behavior.     Francis  Galton  believed  that  genetics  explained  psychological  differences  among  people.   • Believed  that  people  with  better  genes  were  more  successful  ( eugenics)   • Measured  a  combination  of  achievement,  morality,  and  ability  ( eminence)   • Investigated  nature  and  nurture  relationships   • Believed  nature  (heredity)  influenced  mental  processes  and  behavior  more  than  nurture   (environment)   • Ignored  
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