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PSYCH 207 (48)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - History.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 207
Professor
Jiahua Chen
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1: Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms Cognitive psychology – refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.  Attention – mental focus on stimulus  Perception – interpretation of sensory information to yield meaningful information  Pattern recognition – classification of stimulus into known category Antecedent Philosophies & Traditions Empiricism  Locke, Hume, Stuart Mill (LHS)  Knowledge derived from individual experience  Recognize genetic differences, but emphasize changeable aspects of humans  Learning by mental association between ideas Nativism  Plato, Descartes, Kant (PDK)  Emphasis on biological endowment of capacities and abilities THE FIVE MAJOR SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT - Responsible for framing cognitive questions 1) Structuralism  Wundt, Baldwin (W,B)  Emphasis on elemental components of the mind rather than explanation  Introspection o Investigation method o Present stimulus, participant reports conscious experience 2) Functionalist  William James (W)  Deemed psychology to be explanation of our own experience  Emphasis on function of the mind  Method: introspection in natural settings 3) Behaviourism  Watson, Skinner (WS)  Dominant 1930-60  Rejected introspection due to lack of progress  Skinner hypothesized mental representations (internal depictions of information)  Emphasis on relation between inputs (stimuli) and outputs (responses) 4) Gestalt  Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler (WKK)  Central assumption: psychological phenomena could not be reduced to simple elements, must be studied in entirety  Mind imposes its own structure and organization on stimuli 5) Individual Differences  Sir Francis Galton  Abilities were innate  Studied mental imagery (lab, naturalistic)  Developed statistical tests to assess mental abilities The Cognitive Revolution 1) Human factors engineering o Person-machine system: idea that machinery operated by a person must be designed to interact with the operators physical, cognitive, and motivational capacities and limitations o During war: equipment design r
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