Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 211 (146)
Chapter 6

Psych 211: Chapter 6 Textbook Notes

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Mathieu Le Corre

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Chapter 6 Basic Sensory and Perceptual Processes  Habituation – when a novel stimulus is presented, babies pay much attention, but they pay less attention as it becomes for familiar o Babies are interested in new/unfamiliar things  Sense of smell and taste are innate o Babies have the ability to distinguish between 3 different tastes almost right away (bitter, sweet, sour; NOT salty) o Able to memorize smells (ex. the smell of their mother’s amniotic fluid) o Infants LIKE sweet tastes, and DON’T LIKE bitter or sour tastes Hearing  Auditory threshold – the quietest sound that a person can hear o Adults can hear better than infants (higher auditory threshold)  Infants (7 month old) are able to use sound to locate objects o Can distinguish between sound from 15 cm away compared to 60 cm away Seeing  Visual acuity – the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably o most infants will look at a patterned stimuli instead of a plain one o can measure acuity by measuring the width of stripes and distance from infant’s eyes o detecting thinner stripes indicates better visual acuity  cones – neurons in the eye (retina) that detect wavelengths – and therefore colour o 3-4 months: infant’s colour perception is similar to that of adults Complex Perceptual and Attentional Processes Perceiving Objects  Occlusion experiment – infants group features together (believe they’re part of the same object) when they’re the same colour, have the same texture, and when their edges are aligned  Size consistency – the realization that an object’s actual size remains the same despite changes in the size of its retinal image o Infants master this early on  4 months: brightness and colour consistency and shape consistency are achieved (in rudimentary form)  Visual cliff – glass-covered platform; one 1 side a pattern appears directly under the glass, but on the other it appears several feet below the glass o Infants can perceive depth by the time they’re old enough to crawl  Kinetic cues – motion is used to estimate depth  Visual expansion – as an object moves closer, it fills an even greater proportion of the retina  Motion parallax – nearby moving objects move across our visual field faster than those at a distance  Retinal disparity – the left and right eyes often see slightly different versions of the same scene o when objects are distant, the images appear in very similar positions on the retina; when objects are near, the images appear
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