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PSYCH 211 (146)
Chapter 4

chapter 4- Book lecture

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Chris Burris

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PSYCH 211- CHAPTER 4 – BOOK NATURE, NURTURE AND DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTANDING NATURE AND NURTURE  Standard Social Science Model (SSM) - Summary of current thoughts about human nature; also about human issues - Assumes that mind is a blank slate - Assumes that biology is irrelevant to human nature; its influences on culture is minor - There are not many learning mechanisms but instead, few and general ones.`` - Acknowledges classical and operant conditioning – assosiationism  A critique of evolutionary theory - Both nature and nurture should be considered in the development of a person CAUSALITY - Development is not caused by a single entity - Fallacy of exclusive determinism: the intuition that an event has single, identifiable cause HERITABILITY  Heritability statistics does not: - Tell you how much of a trait in a given individual was caused by genes and environment - Tell you how malleable that trait is or how that trait is unchangeably determined HERITABILITY STATISTICS  It is the estimate of the proportion of the measured variance in a trait among individuals in a given population that is attributive to genetic differences among these individuals - How much of the differences among people are statistically accounted for by differences in genes  Sir Francis Galton- nature and nurture - Concluded that nature was the main cause - Regression analysis: statistical analysis that allows him to estimate the relationship of various measures – became correlation IQ HERITABILITY AS AN EXAMPLE  Test Validity - IQ scores are associated with academic and occupational status. - IQ could change overtime.  Methods for estimating heritability o Family studies  To estimate the heritability of a trait in which the concordance of the trait is compared to their genetic relatedness o Adoption studies  The correlation of the trait between adopted parents and child is compared to the correlation of the trait between the related parents and child.  Findings: grater concordance of IQ between biologically related relatives living in different households than between adoptive family members – indicating that IQ is somewhat heritable. o Twin studies  The concordance of the trait between monozygotic is compared to the concordance of the trait of dizygotic  Findings: Monozygotic twins who are reared in different households are more concordant than dizygotic twins reared in the same households.  Findings: Siblings reared together, monozygotic has the highest concordance, next is dizygotic, then full siblings and lowest (0.20) unrelated siblings  The elusive heritability of IQ - Heritability statistics changes over time, population or culture, and age. - Heritability could increase with age - Over time, as environment becomes more uniform, heritability rises - FINDINGS: o The heritability of IQ increases with age o The measured IQ of adopted children are increasingly correlated with their birth parents and decreases with their adoptive parents o Low correlation between children and adoptive siblings o The heritability of IQ continues to increase in adulthood  Known environmental contributions to IQ - Children who have parents that take an active academic interest in their children have higher IQ - Compared to Caucasian children, IQ scores are lower for children who are black and First nations– might be because of culture or poverty WRAPPING UP HERITABILITY: WHAT IS NOT  Heritability statistics is the index o
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