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Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5 Psych 211

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University of Waterloo
Chris Burris

CHAPTER 5 – PERCEPTUAL DEELOPMENT NAÏVE REALISM - THE WAY WE EXPERIENCE AND PERCEIVE THE WORLD IS EXACTLY HOW IT IS; WE HAVE A DIRECT CONTACT TO REALITY - Naïve realism makes you mispredict things (e.g.: bees sees flowers differently as humans do) - You only see the world because your mind constructs a representation of the world INSTINCT BLINDNESS - There are lots of stop we do effortlessly (e.g.: talking, touching, etc.) - Found out that rules of ownership is automatic - The very things that we do instinctually or automatically, we don’t realize that it is complicated and we don’t even realize or know things about it (e.g.: we don’t know anything about vision) PRENATAL PERCEPTION  Taste and smell o Swallowing: Drinking and digestion of the amniotic fluid o Prefer sweet Ex. Injecting sugar water, so fetus drinks the amniotic fluid and eliminates the excess amniotic fluid through the mother’s disposal. Mothers with darker pee showed that fetus prefer sweet  Other preferences o Prefer smell of own amniotic fluid -Newborn prefer smell of own amniotic fluid – put sponge of mother’s amniotic fluid vs. other mom’s sponge of amniotic fluid o Prefer what taste? Carrot Juice experiment -Group 1: Last trimester of Pregnancy, Carrot Juice; First months of lactation, Water -Group 2: Last trimester od P, Water; FMOL, Carrot juice -Group 3: Water, water Results: -Groups that had carrot juice = babies liked the carrot juice -Groups that didn’t have carrot juice = didn’t like carot juice -See chart -It suggests perception of taste even in the womb  Prenatal Vision o /babi/ -> /biba/ experiment (9 month of pregnancy) o Keeps playing the sound “babi” then the Habituation of hear decelerates o First: babi – decelerates then go back to normal o Play babi over again, it kinda stops decelerating because the baby is bored o Reversed babi to biba – baby’s heart rate decelerates again EXPOSURE LEARNING - EXPOSURE TO STIMULUS (WITHOUT A REWARD) MODIFIES BEHAVIOR - Poem recited three times a day for 4 weeks from week 33 to 37 of pregnancy - After 4 weeks (very close to end of pregnancy), greater heart-rate deceleration to familiar poem than for another poem ( or novel poem) - Crucial: At test, poems were not recited by mothers - Suggest fetus can hear and recognize it (perception and even learning and memory) - Implication: Greater memory – more heart deceleration - IMPORTANT: is it different than habituation? And how? YES IT IS. *the Neighbors experiments - neighbor addicted moms, their fetus always hear the neighbors theme song - play them the neighbors song, play different song - reaction: newborns became alert, stopped moving, heart rate decreases - this is not shown by newborns of non-neighbors moms. *Cat in the hat pacifier experiment (tested at 4 days) -the mom reads the cat and the hat - then when the infants were born, when the newborn sucks in the nipple, there’s an interburst interval - hook the babies in the machine, if they suck fast, they hear “cat in the hast” but if they suck slower, they here a different one - Included conditions pitting voice against story: - would you rather hear the cat and the hat by a different woman, or by your mom? - The infants prefer to hear the familiar poem even if it’s in a different voice; it implies that the newborn is having a choice and is so in to the poem *other auditory preferences - Infants prefer mother’s voice over other women - prefer mother’s womb voice - Familiar language over foreign language  What does fetal learning and behavior mean? - Fetal education?! NO - Can people remember being in the womb?! NO - Rebirthing?! NO  CAUTION - Much of the experiments are in late pregnancy only! (usually only 33-37 weeks but not
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