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PSYCH 211 (146)
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Midterm # 1 Study Guide This includes all textbook notes, and lots of examples of experiments that go with each topic. I studied off these notes and almost got perfect on my midterm.

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Ori Friedman

PSYCH 211 Midterm 1 Material BB CHAPTER ONE AN INTRODUCTION TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT Study by Emily Wernero Based on children in Hawaii o Illustrated some of the ways that biological and environmental factors combine to influence child development Prenatal or birth complicationsmore likely to develop physical handicaps mental illnesses etcsome children are resilient to these adverse conditionsHowever complicationsgood home environmentno psychological difficultiesWhy Study Child DevelopmentRaising childreno Gain info and understanding that can help parentsteachers raise successful kidso Effective approaches to managing childs anger or distressExpress sympathy to childHelp child find positive alternatives of expressing anger The turtle techniqueretreating to think about the situation Choosing social policieso Gain insight into socialpolicy issues related to children and to help society adopt policies that promote childrens wellbeingo Should funds be used to try to prevent problems or to cure existing ones o How much trust should be placed on a childs testimony in court Simon Says experimentChildren were told to touch various parts of their body and other childrens bodiesMonth later social workers interviewed the kids and had to find out what they rememberedo Repeated questioning often caused children to change their responsesCan be reliable witnesses if shielded from leading questions Anatomically correct dollsuseful but fine line between play and reality so many inaccurate claims occur Understanding human nature general o Can later upbringing in a good home counteract a bad childhoodRomanian orphanage studyChildren that were severely malnourished were adopted by British families who provided loving homeso Found that physical development inversely related to length of stay in orphanage prior to adoption Intellectual and social development also similar pattern o Children were flexible if deprivation lasted no longer than 6 months Page 1 of 15PSYCH 211 Midterm 1 Material BB Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development Early philosophers views of childrens developmento Plato and Aristotle were interested in how childrens development is influenced by their naturenurture Plato emphasized selfcontrol and disciplineBorn with innate knowledge Aristotlediscipline but fitted to the needs of the childBorn with nothing all knowledge is from experience John Lockeset good examples no over indulgences disciplinechild is born tabula rasa blank slateRousseaugive children max freedom let them learn things on their own Social reform movementso Improve childrens lives by changing living conditions Harsh conditions of industrial revolution New law forbidding employment of children under age 10Darwins theory of evolutiono Presented baby biography about his son Williams developmentRepresented one of the first methods for studying childreno Many other topics such as innate fear of natural dangers attachment to mothers sex differences etc The emergence of child development as a disciplineo Freuds psychoanalytic theorybiological drives are a crucial influence on developmento Watsons behaviorist theorychildrens development is determined by environmental factors esp rewards and punishments Enduring Themes in Child Development Basic questions about child development 1 How do naturenurture shape development a Nature biological endowment genes received from parents Eg appearance personality intelligence etc b Nurture the environments both physical and social that influence our development Eg the womb our homes school people we interact with etc 2 How do children shape their own development the active child First occurs through their selection of what to pay attention toAnimals moving objects mom vs stranger usually stares at mom Learning to speakPlaying roleplayContribution to own development increases as they grow upPage 2 of 15
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