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University of Waterloo
Kathleen Bloom

CHAPTER 1 o Child development: an area of study devoted to understanding constancy band change from conception through adolescence o Developmental science: interdisciplinary field that includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan o 3 domains of development 1) Physical: changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health 2) Cognitive: changes in intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and language 3) Emotional and social: changes in emotional communication, self-understanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behaviour o The 3 domains are not really distinct; they combine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the living, growing child. o Periods of development: o The prenatal period (from conception to birth): the most rapid time of change, a one- celled organism is transformed into a human baby o Infancy and toddlerhood (birth to 2 years): brings dramatic changes in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities: the beginnings of language; and first intimate ties to others o Early childhood (2 - 6): the body becomes longer and leaner, motor skills are refined, and children become more self-controlled and self-sufficient. A sense of morality becomes evident, and children establish ties with peers. o Middle childhood (6 – 11): children learn about the wider world and master new responsibilities that increasingly resemble those they will perform as adults. Improved athletic abilities; participation in organized games with rules; more logical thought processes; mastery of fundamental reading, writing, math, and other academic knowledge and skills, and advances in understanding the self, morality, and friendship o Adolescence (11 – 18): thought becomes abstract and idealistic, and schooling is increasingly directed towards preparation for higher education and the world of work. Young people begin to establish autonomy from the family and to define personal values and goals. o Theory: is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behaviours o They guide and give meaning to what we see o Often serve as a sound basis for practical action o Once a theory helps us understand development, we are in a much better position to know how to improve the welfare and treatment of children o Continuous development: a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with o Discontinuous: a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times o Stages: qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development o contexts: unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change o nature-nurture controversy: by nature, we mean inborn biological givens – the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception. By nurture, we mean the complex forces of the physical and social world that influenc3e our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth. o Resilience: the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development o John Locke: ``blank state`` where children begin as nothing at all; their characters are shaped entirely by experience. His views match nurture- the power of the environment to shape the child. Suggests the possibility of many courses of development and of high plasticity at later ages due to new experiences. Regarded development as continuous o Jean-Jacques Rousseau: did not believe in blank state; instead they are noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate path for orderly, healthy growth. o Concept of stage o Maturation: refers to a genetically determined, naturally course of growth o Discontinuous, stagewise process that follows a single, unified course mapped out by nature o Normative approach: measures of behaviour are taken on large numbers of individuals and age- related averages are computed to represent typical development (G.Stanley Hall) o Psychoanalytic perspective: children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person`s ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. o Freud`s psychosexual theory: emphasizes that how parents manage their child`s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development o Id: the largest portion of the mind, is the source of basic biological needs and desires o Ego: the conscious, rational part of personality, emerges in early infancy to redirect id`s impulses so that they are discharged in acceptable ways o Superego: conscience, develops through interactions with parents, who insist that children conform to the values of society o Ericson`s psychosocial theory: emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society o Behaviorism: directly observable events – stimuli and responses – are the appropriate focus of study o classical conditioning: stimulus and response, repeated stimulus to result in the same response o operant conditioning theory: the frequency of a behaviour can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforces or decreased through punishment o Social learning theory: the most influential, devised by Albert Bandura emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observation learning, as a powerful source of development o Behaviour modification: consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviours and increase desirable responses. o Cognitive-developmental theory: children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world o Piaget`s stages of cognitive development o Sensorimotor (birth to 2): infants `think` by acting on the world with their senses o Preoperational (2 to 7): use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries. Lacks the logic of the two remaining stages o Concrete operation (7 to 11: reasoning becomes logical and better organized. Can organize using hierarchies of classes and subclasses however thinking falls short of adult intelligence (not abstract) o Formal operational (11 years on): can start with a hypothesis, deduce testable inferences, and isolate and combine variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Can also evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. o Informational processing: the human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows o Developmental cognitive neuroscience: the study of the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behaviour patterns o Ethology: the adaptive, or survival, value of behaviour and its evolutionary history o Sensitive period: a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, its boundaries are less well- defined than are those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce. o Evolutionary developmental psychology: it seeks to understand the adaptive value of species- wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age. o Sociocultural theory: focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation (Lev Vygotsky) o Ecological systems theory: views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. o Levels of Bronfenbrenner's model o Microsystem: consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings. o Mesosystem: encompasses connections between microsystems, such as home, school, neighbourhood and child-care center o Exosystem: consists of social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect children's experiences in immediate settings o Macrosystem: consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources o Chronosystem: life changes can be imposed on the child. Alternatively, they can arise from within the child, since as children get older they select, modify, and create many of their own settings and experiences. o Dynamic systems perspective: the child's mind, body and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. The system is dynamic, or constantly in motion. A change in any part of it-from brain growth to physical or social surroundings-disrupts the current organism-environment relationship. When this happens, the child's activity reorganises his or her behaviour so the various components of the system work together again but in a more complex, efficient way. Method Description Strengths Limitations Systematic observations  Naturalistic Observation of Reflects participant's Cannot control observation behaviour in natural everyday behaviours conditions under which contests participants are observed Observations of Grants each participant May not yield  structured behaviour in a lab, an equal opportunity to observations typical of observation where conditions are display the behaviour of participants' behaviour the same for all interest. Permits study in everyday life. participants of behaviours rarely seen in everyday life. Self-reports  Clinical interview Flexible interviewing Comes as close as May not result in procedure in which the possible to the way accurate reporting of investigator obtains a participants think in information. Flexible complete account of the everyday life. Great procedure makes participant's thoughts breadth and depth of comparing individual's information can be responses difficult. obtained in a short time. Self-report instruments Permits comparisons of in which each participants' responses Does not yield the same  Structured interview, questionnaires, and participant is asked the and efficient data depth of information as tests same questions in the collection. Researchers a clinical interview. same way can specify answer Responses are still alternatives that subject to inaccurate participants might not reporting. think of in an open- ended interview. Clinical, or Case a full picture of one Provides rich, May be biased by Study, Method individual's descriptive insights into researchers' theoretical psychological processes of preferences. Findings functioning, obtained by development cannot be applied to combining interviews, individuals other than observations, and the participant sometimes test scores Ethnography Participant observation Provides a more May be biased by of a culture or distinct complete and accurate researchers' theoretical social group. By making description than can be preferences. Findings extensive field notes, derived from a single cannot be applied to the researcher tries to observational visit, individuals other than capture the culture's interview, or the ones studied unique values and questionnaire. social processes Strengths and Limitations of Research Designs Design Description Strengths Limitations General Correlation The investigator obtains Permits study of Does not permit information on relationships between inferences about cause- participants without variables and-effect relationships altering their experiences Experimental The investigator Permits inferences When conducted in the manipulates an about cause-and-effect lab, findings may not be independent variable relationships generalize to the real and examines its effect world. In field on a dependent experiments, controls variable. Can be over the treatment is conducted in the usually weaker than in laboratory or in the the lab. In natural, or natural environment. quasi-, experiments, lack of random assignment substantially reduces the precision of research Developmental Longitudinal The investigator studies Permits study of Age-related changes the same group of common patterns and may be distorted participants repeatedly individual differences in because of biased at different ages development and sampling, selective relationships between attrition, practice effects, early and later events and cohort effects and behaviours Cross-sectional The investigator studies Permits study of Age-related changes groups of participants common patterns and may be distorted differeing in age at the individual differences in because of biased same point in time development and sampling, selective relationships between attrition, practice effects, early and later events and cohort effects and behaviours Sequential The investigator follows Permits both May have the same a sequence of samples, longitudinal and cross- problems as longitudinal collecting data on them sectional comparisons. and cross-sectional at the same points in Reveals cohort effects. strategies, but the time Permits tracking of age- design itself helps related changes more identify difficulties. efficiently than the longitudinal design. Microgenetic The investigator Offers insights into the Requires intensive study presents children with a process of development of participants' novel task and follows moment0by-moment their mastery over a behaviours. The time series of closely spaced required for participants sessions to change is difficult to anticipate. Practice effects may distort developmental trends. CHAPTER 2: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FOUNDATIONS o homozygous: the alleles from both parents are alike and will displau the inherited trait o heterozygous: the alleles are different and relationships between the alleles determine the phenotype o modifier genes: enhance or dilute the effects of other genes o incomplete dominance: a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two o X linked inheritance: when a harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected because their sex chromosome do not match. o Genomic imprinting: alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup. o mutation: a sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA o polygenic inheritance: many genes affect the characteristic in question. o Down syndrome: chromosomal disorder, results from a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosome to separate during meiosis (3 of these chromosomes rather than 2). o trisomy 21 o consequences included some mental retardation, memory and speech problems, limited vocabulary, and slow motor development o distinct physical features- short, stocky build, a flattened face, a protruding tongue, almond- shaped eyes, and an unusual crease running across the palm of the hand o infants are often born with cataracts, hearing loss, and heart and intestinal defects o infants smile less readily, show poor eye-to-eye contact, have weak muscle tone, and explore objects less persistently o genetic counseling: a communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and chose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals o Prenatal diagnostic methods: medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth o Coparenting: mutually supporting each other's parenting behaviours o Socioeconomics status (SES): combines three related, but not completely overlapping variables: years of education, the prestige of one's job and the skill it requires, both of which measure social status, and income which measures economic status. o Subcultures: groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture o extended-family households: in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives o Collective societies: people define themselves as part of a gorup and stress group over individual goals o Individualistic societies: people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs o Public policies: laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions o Behaviour genetics: is a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities o Heritability estimates: measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors o Kinship studies: compare the characteristics of family members o Range of reaction: each person's unique genetically determined response to the environment o Canalization: the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes. o Genetic-environmental correlation: our genes influence the environment to which we are exposed o Epigenesis: development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchange between heredity and all levels of the environment Chapter 3: Prenatal Development o Conception  once every 28 days, in the middle of a woman's menstural cycle, an ovum bursts from one of her ovaries, and is drawn into one of two fallopian tubes  the corpus luteum secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to recieve a fertilized ovum  sperm lives up to 6 days and can lie in wait for the ovum, which survives for only 1 day after being released into the fallopian tube  o fertilization, early cell duplication and implantation steps 1. zygote: as the zygote moves down the fallopian tube, it duplicates, at first slowly and then more rapidly 2. blastocyst: by the fourth day, it forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball, called a blastocyst. The inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism. The outer cells, or trophoblast, will provide protective covering and nourishment 3. implantation: at the end of the first week, the blastocyst begins to implant in the uterine lining. it forms a membrane called the amnion that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movement.  a yolk sac emerges that provides blood cells until the developing liver, spleen, and bone marrow are mature enough to take over this function o by the end of the second week, cells of the trophoblast form another protective membrane (chorion) which surrounds the amnion. From the chorion, villi or blood vessels emerge. o the umbilical cord contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products. o the period of the embryo lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy. The most rapid prenatal changes take place. o Last half of the first month: the embryonic disk forms three layers of cells  the ectoderm which will become the nervous system and skin  the mesoderm from which will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs  the endoderm which will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands o the ectoderm folds over to form the neural tube, or spinal cord. At 3.5 weeks, the top swells to form the brain o a white cheeselike substance called vernix protects its skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid. o White, downy hair called lanugo also appears over the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin o the point at which the baby can first survive, called the age of viability, occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks o teratogen: refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period  Dose: larger doses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects  heredity: the genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role. Some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments  other negative influences: the presence of several negative factors at once, such as additional teratogens, poor nutrition, and lack of medical care, can worsen the impact of a single harmful agent  age: the effects of teratogens vary with the age of the organism at time of exposure. o tobacco  low birth weight  miscarriage, prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing during sleep, infant death and asthma, and cancer later in childhood is also increased  nicotine constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus and causes the plancenta to grow abnormally o alcohol  fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): a term that encompasses a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure  Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, a smooth or flattened philtrum or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip) and brain injury, evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning  Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities just mentioned and brain injury. Depends on alcohol quantities and frequency  alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND): at least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities. Less pervasive than in FAS o Radiation  can cause mutation, damaging DNA in ova and sperm  the embryo or fetus can suffer additional harm  increase risk of childhood cancer  exposed Chernobyl children had abnormal brain-wave activity, lower intelligence test scores, and rates of language and emotional disorders two to three times greater o environmental pollution  impaired prenatal development and increase the chances of life-threatening diseases and health problems later on  lead: related to prematurity, low birth weight, brain damage, and a wide varity of physical defeats  dioxins: toxic compounds resulting from incineration- linked to brain, immune system, and thyroid damage in babies and to an increased incidence of breast and uterine cancer in women o Infectious disease  viruses: mothers become ill; infants show deafness, eye deformities, heat, genital, urinary, intestinal, bone and dental defects; and mental retardation  bacterial and parasitic diseases: can transmit to baby  learning or visual disabilities in later life o maternal factors  o Rh factor incompatibility: when the mother is Rh0negative and the father is Rh-positive, the bay may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type. If even a little of a fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, she beings to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues Chapter 4: Birth and the Newborn Baby o Dilation and effacement of the cervix: as uterine contractions gradually becomes more frequent and powerful, they cause the cervix to open and thin, forming a clear channel from the uterus into the birth canal, or vagina. o Transition: the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely o Apgar scale: a scale used to assess the newborn's physical condition quickly. 7 or better indicates that the infant is in good physical condition. o Natural or prepared childbirth: a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible o induced labor: is one that is started artificially, usually by breaking the amnion or bag of waters, and giving the mother synthetic oxytocin, a hormone that stimulates contractions o cesarean delivery: is a surgical birth o breech position: turned so that the buttocks or feat would be delivered first o Oxygen deprivation  placenta abruption: premature separation of the placenta  placenta previa: a condition caused by implantation of the blastocyst so low in the uterus that the placenta covers the cervical opening. As the cervix dilates and effaces in the third trimester, part of the placenta may detach.  can cause severe hemorrhaging o anoxia: inadequate oxygen supply o Preterm and low-birth-weight infants  three weeks or more before end of a full 38-week prenancy  weigh less than 5.5 pounds  preterm infants: are born several weeks or more before their due date  small fordate infants: are below their expected weight considering length of the pregnancy o rooming in: the infant stays in the mother's hospital room all or most of the time o reflex: is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation o states of arousal: degrees of sleep and wakefulness o rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep: brain-wave activity is remarkably similar as that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven; and slight body movement occur o non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) seep: they body is almost motionless and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and even o visual acuity: fineness of discrimination o Neonatal Behaviour Assessment Scale (NBAS): evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions PSYCH CHAPTER 5 - Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood o cephalocaudal trend: from the Latin for "head to tail". During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body o Proximodistal trend: growth process, literally, from "near to far" - from the center of the body outward. o Skeletal age: a measure of development of the bones of the body o epiphyses: special growth centers appear at the two extreme ends of each of the long bones of the body o At birth the bones of the skull are separated by six gaps, or "soft spots" called fontanels • The gaps permit the bones to overlap as the large head of the baby passes through the mother's narrow birth canal o neurons: or nerve cells, that store and transmit information o between tiny gaps, or synapses, where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch. o Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters, which cross the synapse o Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses, in a process called synaptic pruning that returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development o what causes the dramatic increase in brain size during the first two years? About half the brain's volume is made up of glial cells, which are responsible for myelination, the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath (called myelin) that improves the efficiency of message transfer o the cerebral cortex surrounds the rest of the brain, resembling half of a shelled walnut. It is the largest brain structure - accounting for 85 percent of the brain's weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses. o The prefrontal cortex, lying in front of areas controlling body movement, is responsible for thought - in particular, for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of information, and use of memory, reasoning, integration of information, and use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving strategies. o Lateralization: specialization of the two hemispheres • the left hemisphere is better at processing information in a sequential, analytic way, a good approach for dealing with communicative information - both verbal and emotional • the right hemisphere is specialized for processing information in a holistic, integrative manner, ideal for making sense of spatial information and regulating negative e motion. o brain plasticity: a highly plastic cerebral cortex, in which many areas are not yet committed to specific function has a high a capacity for learning. And if a part of the cortex is damaged, other parts can take over the tasks it would have handled. o experience-expectant brain growth: refers to the young brain' rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences - opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment. o experience-dependant brain growth: occurs throughout our lives. It consists of additional grwoth and the refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. Influences on Early Physical Growth o heredity o nutrition o malnutrition • marasmus: is a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. It usually appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is also inadequate. • kwashiorkor: caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age. o emotional well-being • growth faltering: is a term applied to infants whose weight, height, and head circumference are substantially below age-related growth norms and who are withdrawn and apathetic. In as many as half such cases, a disturbed parent- infant relationship contributes to this failure to grow normally. o Classical conditioning • classical conditioning: possible in the young infant. In this form of learning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response 1. before learning takes place, an unconditioned stimulus must consistently produce a reflexive, or unconditioned, response. In Caitlin's case, sweet breast milk (UCS) resulted in sucking (UCR) 2. to produce learning, a neutral stimulus that does not lead to the reflex is presented just before, or at about the same time as, the UCS. Carolyn stroked Caitlin's forehead as each nursing period began. The stroking (neutral stimulus) was paired with the taste of milk (UCS). 3. If learning has occurred, the neutral stimulus alone produces a response similar to the reflexive response. The neutral stimulus is then called a conditioned stimulus (CS), and the response it elicits is called a conditioned response (CR). o Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning, infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again. A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a reinforce. • A desired stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called punishment o Habituation • habituation: refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of response due to repetitive stimulation • a new stimulus - a change in the environment - causes responsiveness to return to a high level, an increase called recovery o Imitation • by copying the behavior of another person • scientists have identified specialized cells in many areas of the cerebral cortex of primates - called mirror neurons - that underlie these capacities. Mirror neurons fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own o Motor development • gross-motor development refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking • fine-motor development has to do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping • dynamic systems theory of motor development: mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment o newborns also make poorly coordinated swipes, called prereaching o ulnar grasp, a clumsy motion in which the young infant's fingers close against the palm o infants use the thumb and index finger in a well-coordinated princer grasps o research reveals threat they have an impressive statistical learning capacity. By analyzing the speech stream for patterns - repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds - they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start talk around age 12 months. o depth perception is the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves. o visual cliff consists of a Plexiglas-covered table with a platform at the center, a "shallow" side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass, and a "deep" side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass. The researchers found that crawling babies readily crossed the shallow side, but most avoided the deep side. They concluded that around the time infants crawl, most distinguish deep from shallow surfaces and avoid drop-offs. o A general principle, called contrast sensitivity, explains early pattern preferences. Contrast refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern. If babies are sensitive to the contrast in two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast. o size constancy: perception of an object's size as the same, despite changes in the size in its retinal image o perception of an object's shape as table, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina, is called shape constancy. o intermodal perception, we make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor, and taste information, perceiving them as integrated wholes. We know, for example, that an object's shape is the same whether we see it or touch it, that lip movements are closely coordinated with the sound of a voice, and that dropping a rigid object on a hard surface will cause a sharp, banging sound o amodal sensory properties, information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems, such as rate, rhythm, duration, intensity, temporal sight synchrony, and texture and shape. o differentiation theory, infants actively search for invariant features of the environment - those that remain stable - in a constantly changing perceptual world o affordances - the action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities CHAPTER 6 o sensorimotor stage: spans the first two years of life. Piaget believed that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads. o specific psychological structures - organized ways of making sense of experience called schemes o adaptation involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment o assimilation we use our current schemes to interpret the external world o accommodation we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely o organization: a process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system. o Circular reaction: provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. The reaction is ":circular" because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme. o Intentional or goal-directed, behavior, coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems. o object permanence, the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight o A-not-B search error: if they reach several times for an object at a first hiding place (a), then see it moved to a second (B), they still search for it in the first hiding place (A). o Mental representations - internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate o Deferred imitation - the ability to remember and copy the behaviour of models who are not present o make-believe play: children act out every day and imaginary activities o violation-of-expectation method: they may habituate babies to a physical event to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested. Or they may simply show babies an expected event or an unexpected event. Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggest that the infant is "surprised" by a deviation from physical reality and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world. o the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present - a symbolic capacity called displaced reference that emerges around the first birthday. o core knowledge perspective: babies are born with a set of innate knowledge system, or core domains of thought. Each of these "prewired" understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development. Information Processing o mental strategies: to operate on and transform it, increasing the changes that we will retain information, use it efficiently, and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances. o sensory register: were sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly. o working or short-term memory, we actively apply mental strategies as we "work" on a limited amount of information. o To manage its complex activities, a special part of working memory - called the central executive - directs the flow of information. It decides what to attend to, coordinates incoming information with information already in the system, and selects, applies, and monitors strategies. o long term memory: our permanent knowledge base o recognition: noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced. o recall: is more challenging because it involves remembering something without perceptual support. o zone of proximal development: a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners o intelligence quotient which indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals. o standardization - giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores o normal distribution: in which most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes. This bell-shaped distribution results whenever researchers measure individual differences in large samples. o infant test scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are conservatively labeled developmental quotients rather than IQs. o home observation for measurement of the environment is a checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview o developmentally appropriate practice: these standards, devised by the US National Association for the Education of Young Children, specify program characteristics that serve young children's developmental and individual needs, based on both current research and consensus among experts. o Language acquisition device (LAD): an innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages. It enables children, no matter which language they hear, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words. o joint attention: in which the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver o when young children first learn words, they sometimes apply them too narrowly, an error called underextension o overextension - applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate o these two word utterances are called telegraphic speech because like a telegram, they focus on high-content words, omitting smaller, less important ones (mommy shoe, while omitting words like can, the, to) o Production - the words and word combinations children use o comprehension - the language they understand o referential style; their vocabularies consisted mainly words that referred to objects o expressive style; they produced many more social formulas and pronouns o child-directed speech (CDS) a form of com
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