Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (998)
PSYCH 211 (146)

Psych211 Recommended Readings Notes

29 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
Kathleen Bloom

CHAPTER 1oChild development an area of study devoted to understanding constancy band change from conception through adolescence oDevelopmental science interdisciplinary field that includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespano3 domains of development1Physical changes in body size proportions appearance functioning of body systems perceptual and motor capacities and physical health 2Cognitive changes in intellectual abilities including attention memory academic and everyday knowledge problem solving imagination creativity and language 3Emotional and social changes in emotional communication selfunderstanding knowledge about other people interpersonal skills friendships intimate relationships and moral reasoning and behaviour oThe 3 domains are not really distinct they combine in an integrated holistic fashion to yield the living growing child oPeriods of development oThe prenatal period from conception to birth the most rapid time of change a onecelled organism is transformed into a human baby oInfancy and toddlerhood birth to 2 years brings dramatic changes in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide array of motor perceptual and intellectual capacities the beginnings of language and first intimate ties to others oEarly childhood 26 the body becomes longer and leaner motor skills are refined and children become more selfcontrolled and selfsufficient A sense of morality becomes evident and children establish ties with peers oMiddle childhood 611 children learn about the wider world and master new responsibilities that increasingly resemble those they will perform as adults Improved athletic abilities participation in organized games with rules more logical thought processes mastery of fundamental reading writing math and other academic knowledge and skills and advances in understanding the self morality and friendship oAdolescence 11 18 thought becomes abstract and idealistic and schooling is increasingly directed towards preparation for higher education and the world of work Young people begin to establish autonomy from the family and to define personal values and goals oTheory is an orderly integrated set of statements that describes explains and predicts behavioursoThey guide and give meaning to what we see oOften serve as a sound basis for practical action oOnce a theory helps us understand development we are in a much better position to know how to improve the welfare and treatment of children oContinuous development a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with oDiscontinuous a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times oStages qualitative changes in thinking feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development ocontexts unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change onaturenurture controversy by nature we mean inborn biological givensthe hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception By nurture we mean the complex forces of the physical and social world that influenc3e our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth oResilience the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development oJohn Locke blank state where children begin as nothing at all their characters are shaped entirely by experienceHis views match nurture the power of the environment to shape the child Suggests the possibility of many courses of development and of high plasticity at later ages due to new experiences Regarded development as continuous oJeanJacques Rousseau did not believe in blank state instead they are noble savages naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate path for orderly healthy growth oConcept of stageoMaturation refers to a genetically determined naturally course of growth oDiscontinuous stagewise process that follows a single unified course mapped out by natureoNormative approach measures of behaviour are taken on large numbers of individuals and agerelated averages are computed to represent typical development GStanley Hall oPsychoanalytic perspective children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations How these conflicts are resolved determines the persons ability to learn to get along with others and to cope with anxiety oFreuds psychosexual theory emphasizes that how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development oId the largest portion of the mind is the source of basic biological needs and desires oEgo the conscious rational part of personality emerges in early infancy to redirect ids impulses so that they are discharged in acceptable ways oSuperego conscience develops through interactions with parents who insist that children conform to the values of societyoEricsons psychosocial theory emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands the ego makes a positive contribution to development acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active contributing member of society oBehaviorism directly observable eventsstimuli and responsesare the appropriate focus of study oclassical conditioning stimulus and response repeated stimulus to result in the same response the frequency of a behaviour can be increased by following it with a ooperant conditioning theory wide variety of reinforces or decreased through punishment oSocial learning theory the most influential devised by Albert Bandura emphasizes modeling also known as imitation or observation learning as a powerful source of development oBehaviour modification consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviours and increase desirable responses oCognitivedevelopmental theory children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world oPiagets stages of cognitive development oSensorimotor birth to 2 infants think by acting on the world with their senses oPreoperational 2 to 7 use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries Lacks the logic of the two remaining stages oConcrete operation 7 to 11 reasoning becomes logical and better organized Can organize using hierarchies of classes and subclasses however thinking falls short of adult intelligence not abstract oFormal operational 11 years on can start with a hypothesis deduce testable inferences and isolate and combine variables to see which inferences are confirmed Can also evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to realworld circumstances oInformational processing the human mind might also be viewed as a symbolmanipulating system through which information flows oDevelopmental cognitive neuroscience the study of the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing childs cognitive processing and behaviour patterns oEthology the adaptive or survival value of behaviour and its evolutionary history oSensitive period a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences However its boundaries are less welldefined than are those of a critical period Development can occur later but it is harder to induce
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 211

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.