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Chapter 4

PSYCH 211 BOOK CH4,6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 211
Professor
Mathieu Le Corre
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4: CORE KNOWLEDGE THEROIES - Babies have naïve theories to help them to understand their world UNDERSTANDING IN CORE DOMAINS - Babies are able to categorize, they learn some of its properties. - Important clues come from perceptual features and their organization - First the categories are very broad, then babies learn to narrow it by distinguishing sub categories UNDERSTANDING OBJECT AND THEIR PROPERTIES - I\nfants rapidly create reasonable and accurate theories, which help them to expect that object will act in predictable ways UNDERSTANDING LIVING THINGS - Motion is critical in early understanding of animate and inanimate objects - By 12 to 15 months they see the objects if they are: o Self-propelled o Move in irregular paths o Act to achieve goals - 4 year old theories of biology (preschool children know many properties of living things, including movement, growth, and that living things heal when injured) o Movement: o Growth: o Internal parts: o Illness: o Healing: - Children do not see plants as living things, but that is due to lack of \motion (lack of goal directed motion) o They will see that plants are indeed living things when it is taught - Children’s naïve theories provide powerful tools for making sense of their world and for understanding new experiences Understanding people - Informal beliefs about other people and their behaviour (naïve psychology) - Even infants seem to interpret other people’s actions in terms of the intent of those actions o People’s behaviour is often international- designed to achieve a goal - Naïve understanding if the relationship between mind and behaviour (theory of the mind; ages 2-5) o Age 2: aware of desires, talk about their wants and likes o Age 3: clearly distinguish the mental world from the physical world, learn to use verbs like think, believe, remember, forget o Age 4:children understand that their own and other people’s behaviour is based on their beliefs about events and situations, even when those beliefs are wrong - False – belief error: attributing their own knowledge of the marble’s location (kids will say sally will search in correct location, but six months later kids understand Sally’s false belief error, and she will search in her basket (wrong place) - Conversations with parents and sibling about mental states help preschool to understand that behaviour i
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