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Chapter 5-7

PSYCH 230 Summaries of Chapters 5-7

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John Rempel

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Pysch230 Test 3 notes Chapter 5 Eyewitness testimonyThe role of memory Retrieval and encoding affected by different factors eg inattention time elapse Parts of memory can be embellished or guessed Recognition memory determining whether a previously seen item or person is the same as what is currently being viewed different from recall memory Stages perceptionattention encoding shortterm longterm and retrieval stageHow do we study eyewitness issues Most common the laboratory simulation where an unknowing participant views a critical event either through a slide sequence video recording or live then asked to describe what happened may asked to examine a lineup Independent variables manipulated estimator variables those variables present at the time of crime and cannot be changed system variable those variables can be manipulated to increasedecrease eyewitness accuracy Both can be manipulated in lab settings Dependent variables recall of the eventcrime recall of culprit and recognition of the culprit Recall takes the form of openended recall free narrative also direct question recall specific questions Recall examined for the amount of info reported the type and accuracy of the info Recognition task is usually lineup voiceclothing lineup common too Examine for the accuracy of decision types of errors makeRecall memory is critical Interviewing eyewitnesses variations in POs Approach limited their ability to collect info often interrupt eyewitnesses when providing open recall question w short specific questions tend to ask questions in a predetermined or random order and they tend to ask leading questions Leading questions the misinformation effect Loftuss study on the speed and descriptive words smash hit contact also reported broken glass when the word smash was used weeks later when theres no glass Misinformation effect postevent information effect a witness who is presented with inaccurate info after an event will incorporate the misinform in a subsequent recall task 2 experiments demonstrating the effect Some people will guess at the answer they think the experimenter wants misinform acceptance hypothesis Source misattribution hypothesis the witness has two memories the original and the misinform cannot remember where each memory originated Memory impairment hypothesis original memory is replaced with the new incorrect info Loftus Witness exposed to misinform in different ways officer make assumption about what occurred and inadvertently phrase a question consistent w the assumption more than one witness overhear each others statements change to make it consistent PO incorporate an erroneous detail from previous witnesss interview Procedure that help police interview Hypnosis used when witness unable to recall much bc traumatized Hypnotically refreshed memory a hypnotized person is able to produce a greater number of details Factors influence whether hypnosis can be induced degree of trust willingness belief and seriousness of the context for being hypnotized Two common techniques age regression goes back in time and reexperience television screen witness watching an imaginary television with events being played as they were witnessed In order for it to be useful the police need to know about the accuracy of the info recalled while under hypnosis Research found that they can provide more detail but just likely to be inaccurate as accurate Hypnotized individual seems to be more suggestible Courts do not allow this The cognitive interview Based on the principles of memory storage and retrieval used on witness not suspects 4 techniques reinstating the context reporting everything reversing order and changing perspective Produced greater accuracy reduce number of errors Enhanced cognitive interviews added various principles of various principles of social dynamics additional components include rapport building supportive interviewer behavior transfer of control focused retrieval witness compatible questioning No
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