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Chapter 12

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University of Waterloo
Hilary B Bergsieker

Psych. 253 Social Psych. Chapter 12 Consequences of Prejudice - One of the important consequences of prejudice is discriminatory behavior Prejudices Based on Race and Gender Prejudice Based on Race - In the context of the world, every race is a minority - Race is something created by people, not nature Is racial prejudice disappearing? - Explicit prejudicial attitudes can change very quickly  like in 1942 most White Americans believed Blacks should have a different section on the bus and that they shouldn’t go to the same schools as their White children  this would seem absurd in today’s society - Africville was a small town in Halifax, Nova Scotia that was founded by free slaves in early 1800s and in 1950s – 1960s, Halifax took the land from these people and refused to compensate them  today, such blatant prejudice is a major embarrassment for Halifax - Unfortunately though, we cannot conclude that racial prejudice is extinct - 7772 reported hate crimes motivated by race during 2006 in the U.S. and 762 in Canada (about proportional when looked at the populations as a whole) - Majority groups compare racial equality to the past and feel that there has been a lot of progress, the minority groups compare it to their ideal world and see less progress Subtle forms of prejudice - The subtle influence of prejudice on discrimination is more widespread than previously though to be - Whites are equally helpful to other Whites and Blacks, but when the person is remote (asking for help through a phone) and seem to have a Black accent, they are less likely help - White people gave no more shocks to Black people than they did to White people, except when they were angered during or before the experiment, or when the person receiving the shocks couldn’t retaliate or tell who did it, in both cases the Blacks received more shock than Whites - Bias can also be seen from the following results: o Experiment by M.I.T. researchers who sent out 5000 resumes in response to 1300 ads. They received 1 callback for every 10 applications that had white names (Emily, Greg) and 1 callback for every 15 applications that had black names (Lakisha, Jamal) o Analysis of traffic stops showed that African – Americans and Latinos were four times more likely than Whites to be searched, twice as likely to be arrested, and three times more likely to be handcuffed and to have excessive force used against them o Toronto Star analysis found that for arrests made for single possession drug arrests, 76% of Whites were released at the scene in such arrests but only 61.8% of Blacks were released, and they were twice as likely to be held for bail o In Ontario of 2005, it was found that police were 3.7 times more likely to stop a Black driver and 1.4 times more likely to stop a an aboriginal driver as compared to White drivers - Exaggerated reactions to isolated minority are also a form of subtle prejudice  overpraising their accomplishments, over criticizing their mistakes and failing to warn Black students about potential academic difficulty in the way White students are. - Experiment in which White students evaluated a poorly written essay, and when told a Black student wrote it, they gave it a higher grade and were kinder with their criticism. The evaluators, maybe in order to avoid appearing bias, patronized the Black essayist with lower standards which could hinder minority student achievement Discrimination without awareness - When people have prejudice that they are unaware of, it leads to discrimination that they are unaware of o Swedish study predicted the likelihood of 193 corporate employers not interviewing applicants with Muslim names o Medical study of 287 physicians found that those exhibiting the most implicit racial bias were least likely to prescribe clot bursting drugs to Black patients complaining of chest pain o Study of 44 Australian drug and alcohol nurses, those who had implicit bias against drug users were most likely to want a different job when under job stress o University students are shown a movie of faces morphing from angry to happy and those who scored as most prejudiced on the implicit racial attitudes test perceived anger lingering more in ambiguous Black than white faces - Automatic, implicit prejudice can have life or death consequences  study where participants see Blacks and Whites with either a gun or harmless object and had to decide to “shoot” or “not shoot,” and most times, many participants mistakenly shot the Blacks o Australians more readily shot someone wearing Muslim headgear o If we implicitly associate a particular race with danger, the faces of those people capture our attention and trigger arousal - Even when primed with Black or White faces, people think guns and often mistake even tools, such as a wrench, for a gun - The opposite of above can happen as well: when people are primed with guns, they pay more attention to faces of African-Americans - Different brain groups are activated when we think of certain out-groups in disgust (drug addicts and homeless). The primitive regions of the brain, such as the amygdala are activated and this suggests that automatic prejudice arises from primitive fear. Conscious thinking activates frontal cortex - The same discrimination can also be seen among social psychologists  when citing works that they use, there are 40% higher odds that the non-Jewish psychologist will cite other non- Jewish authors vs. Jewish Prejudice Based on Gender - Norms are prescriptive; stereotypes are descriptive Gender stereotypes - In most countries, girls help with household chores while boys have unsupervised play - Even in award-winning children books, girls are seen more often with household items (brooms or pots) and boys are seem more often with production objects (pitchfork or gun) - Throughout the last half of the century, women have been gaining more footholds in being able to get out of the house and start working. Since 1975, increasing women have been training as lawyers, doctors and engineers (though less commonly for engineers) - However, there have been studies that show that similar to subtle racism, subtle sexism still exists - Experiment in which researchers all using uniform strategy for negotiation went out to 90 Chicago area car-dealers and tried to negotiate the lowest possible price for a car that cost the dealer $11 000. The final prices given were: $11 362 for White males, $11 504 for White females, $11 783 for Black males, and $12 237 for Black women (8% more than that given for White males) - Strong gender stereotypes exist (even stronger than racial stereotypes) and members of the stereotyped group accept stereotypes - Only 22% of men thought the two sexes equally in terms of emotion. 78% of men thought women were more emotional and women’s responses were identical within a one percentage point - Stereotypes are generalizations about groups of people that maybe true or false, or overgeneralized from truth  though the average men and women do differ somewhat in social connectedness (not in intelligence though), the differences are exaggerated - Some gender stereotypes in different countries were found to be true and not exaggerated - Stereotypes (beliefs) are not prejudices (attitudes). Stereotypes may support prejudice, but not always. One could believe without prejudice that men and women are different, but equal. Gender-based discrimination: Benevolent and hostile - 1968 study, women asked to rate short articles and the women gave lower ratings to articles that they were told were written by other women (historic mark of oppression: self- deprecation) - Repeated study of the 1968 study in 1980 found that no discrimination occurred - Another study of different experiments found that biases against me were as equal as biases against women, but the most common result across 104 studies involving 20 000 people was no difference - Although blatant gender prejudice is dying, subtle bias lives - Beyond democratic Western countries, gender discrimination looms even larger: o 2/3 of the world’s unschooled children are girls (1991) o Discrimination extends to violence such as being prosecuted for adultery after rape or being burned by upset husbands (2006) o In Saudi Arabia, women are forbidden to drive (1990) o People prefer to have children that are boys over girls if they could only have one child by about 38% in Western countries, and even more in other countries. Due to the new Ultrasounds, many people get abortion in other countries around the world when they know they’re about to have a girl, resulting in tens of millions of “missing women” - Subtle prejudice against race and sex is still widespread and in some parts of the world, gender prejudice makes for misery Consequences of Prejudice for those who Face it Self-Perpetuating Stereotypes - Prejudice is prejudgment and it’s unavoidable. Our prejudgments guide our attention, our interpretations, and our memories and once we associate something with a particular category, our memory associates I with that category - Study in which students were shown computer generated faces of 70% male features with 30% female features (or vice versa) and when asked to recall the face, they remembered it as being male and even more masculine that it actually was - Prejudgments are self-perpetuating. When a member of a group behaves as expected, our prior belief is confirmed. But when someone behaves unexpectedly, we explain the behavior as special circumstances and leads to making someone exceptional - Telling someone “Maria played hockey” and others “Mark played hockey” may make Maria seem more athletic than mark - Stereotypes therefore influence how we construe / analyze someone’s behavior - Prime White people with negative media images of Black people, and the White people feel less empathy for other Blacks in need - Misinterpretations are likely when someone expects an unpleasant encounter: Study in which two university-age men are placed in a room, prior to the experiment, one is told that the other is extremely unfriendly and the other is told that one is extremely friendly. Those told the other is friendly, acted even more kindly to the person. Those told the other is unfriendly, rated the encounter negatively and distrusted the other person (who was actually being extremely friendly) and they “see” hostility lurking beneath the “forced smiles” that they would never have seen if they hadn’t been led to believe in the other person being unfriendly in the first place - When we notice something extremely inconsistent with a stereotype, we focus on the atypical example and save our own stereotype by making a separate category for the inconsistent thing (ex of category of senior Olympics). - Separate category does not effect our original stereotype of the people (friendly police officers in a school do not make students have an improved image of police officers outside school) - Subtyping: accommodating groups of individuals ho deviate from one’s stereotype by thinking of them as a special category of people with different properties - Another way to accommodate to inconsistent information to a stereotype is to realize that the stereotype doesn’t apply for everyone and to form a new and different stereotype - Subgrouping: accommodating groups of individuals who deviate from one’s stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group (White people making a new and different stereotype of “professional, middle-class Blacks” for their friendly Black neighbors) - Subtypes are exceptions to the group; subgroups are acknowledged as part of the overall group Impact of Discrimination: The Self – Fulfilling Prophecy - Attitudes may coincide with the social hierarchy not only as a rationalization for it but also because discrimination affects its victims - In The Nature of Prejudice, Allport catalogued 15 possible effects of victimization and all of them fall into either of two categories: either involves blaming oneself (withdrawal, self-ate, aggression against own group) or involves blaming external causes (fighting back, suspiciousness, increased group pride) - Does not always lead to this effect: Black’s take pride in their heritage and it is not only as a response to victimization - As White youth are learning to see beyond differences and avoid stereotypes, Black youth are taking more pride in their ethnicity and positively valuing ethnic differences - Social beliefs can be self-confirming: experiment in which White Princeton University men interviewed Black and White research assistants: found that when the person was Black, th
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