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PSYCH 253 (36)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World.docx
Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World.docx

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School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 253
Professor
Hilary B Bergsieker
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2 Self-concept- a person’s answers to the question “who am I” Self-schemas- beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information; athlete/overweight/smart Posibble selfs- images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future Influences:  social identity- the “we” aspect of our self-concept. The part of our answer to “who am I” that comes from our group memberships; I am Canadian, I am catholic…  social comparisons- evaluating your abilities and opinions by comparing yourself to others o first and fourth year students have similar self-evaluations normally, but when they st th compare themselves to a star student, the 1 years are inspired and the 4 years are depressed  Successes and failures o Self-esteem comes from achievements, problems and failures can lower self-esteem  How others judge us  Surrounding culture o Individualism-the concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications; common in western civilization o Collectivism-giving priority to the goals of one’s groups (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly; common in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America  Nurture interdependent self- construing one’s identity in relation to others o Asians tend to think more in relationships, they look at the collective, while Americans tend to focus on the focal point or one thing at a time.  Self expression vs express to others o This has an effect on self-esteem as well, whether it correlates with what others think of you or if it is more stable. Self-Knowledge We are very bad at knowing what makes us happy (BOOK) or what affects our moods. Others around us are much better. We also are bad at predicting feelings. We often don’t feel as bad after a break-up as we thought we would. Planning fallacy-the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task Impact bias- overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events Immune neglect- the human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the “psychological immune system” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen. When the causes of our behaviour are conspicuous and the correct explanation fits our intuition, our self-perceptions will be accurate. We are often unaware of what goes on in our minds, but we experience the results of our mind’s unconscious work; a body clock, a sudden solution Dual attitudes- differing implicit(automatic) and explicit(consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits. Implicit = gut feeling Self-esteem- a person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth Explicit- consciously controlled Implicit- automatic or intuitive When you feel good about a certain domain (intelligence, attractiveness…) self esteem is higher, but it works the other way round as well. If you view yourself in a general way, you will value your looks, smarts more. Specific
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