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PSYCH 253 (36)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgments.docx

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University of Waterloo
Hilary B Bergsieker

Chapter 3 – social judgments  We perceive events based on assumptions  We judge events informed by intuition, implicit rules that guide snap judgements, and our moods.  We explain events by attributing them to the situation and sometimes the person  If we expect a certain situation, we can help bring it about We respond not to reality as it is, but to reality as we construe it Priming- activating particular associations in memory One thought can influence another thought, even if the primer is not consciously perceived Belief Perseverance- persistence of your initial conceptions, as when the basis for your belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true We construct memories at time of withdrawal Misinformation effect- incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event after witnessing an event and then receiving misleading information about it If we change our view on something, we will often think we always thought the way we think now. “It is all too common for caterpillars to become butterflied and then to maintain that in their youth they had been little butterflies.” Rosy retrospection- recalling mildly pleasant events more favourably than they experienced then; travel is glamorous only in retrospect We can revise our own history in addition to our previous views. We remember brushing our teeth more if we heard a message on the importance of brushing our teeth. INTUITION Controlled processing- “explicit” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious; names/dates Automatic processing- “implicit” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness; roughly corresponds to “intuition”; skills/dispositions  Schemas – mental templates  Emotional reactions- no deliberate thinking, instantaneous response  Expertise- chess players intuitively recognize patters that novices miss Even if a person has lost explicit memory (will forget who you are after being introduced) if you attach a tack to your hand and cause the person pain, he will intuitively not shake your hand even though he doesn’t remember you. Blindsight- to be functionally blind in part of their field of vision ;When sticks held in that field of vision, they are able to guess correctly if they are vertical or horizontal Subliminal- stimuli outside of awareness Overconfidence phenomenon- the tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs; we think we judge more about people better than we actually can Incompetence feeds overconfidence, it takes competence to recognize competence. If you don’t have logic you might not know you lack it Confirmation bias- a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions ; people seek spouses who bolster their own self-views Techniques to reduce overconfidence bias: 1. Prompt feedback a. Weatherman get immediate feedback and are consequently good at predicting 2. To reduce “planning fallacy (underestimate the time it will take to complete a task),” break a task into subcomponents 3. Get people to think of one good reason why their judgment might be wrong, force them to consider disconfirming information Heuristic- a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements Representativeness heuristic- the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member; implicit rule of thumb Availability heuristic- a cognitive rule the judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace
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