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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Behaviour and Attitudes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 253
Professor
Hilary B Bergsieker
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4: Behaviour and Attitudes Attitude: a favourable or unfavourable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour There is a disjunction between attitudes and actions – are we all hypocrites? When morality and greed are put together, greed wins This is because both our attitudes and actions are subject to other influences Implicit Association Test(IAT)- a computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words. Easier pairings (and faster responses) are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations Ex) measure implicit racial attitudes by seeing if it takes longer to associate positive words with black people than with white people DISADVANTAGE: it does not distinguish a positive bias for one group from a negative bias for another. Actions are effected by explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious) attitudes Principle of aggregation- the effects of an attitude on behaviour become more apparent when we look at a person’s aggregate (average) behaviour rather than isolated events; how you feel about religion does not always dictate if you will go next Sunday because things like the weather, how you are feeling, and the preacher may also influence it. What it does predict is the total number of religious behaviours over time Theory of Planned behaviour : one’s attitudes (I’m for physical activity), perceived social norms(everybody in my neighborhood is jogging), and feelings of control (I can easily do this) together determine one’s intentions, which guide behaviour (starting to jog regularly) EXAMPLE: study of married women’s use of birth control. Attitude toward it and correlation to behaviour was only .08 (IN SLIDE) Conditions under which attitudes predict behaviour: 1. We minimize other influences onour attitude statements and our behaviour 2. The attitude is specifically relevant to the observed behaviour 3. When it is potent (brought to mind) When attitudes are forged through experience they are more enduring and more likely to guide action When do behaviours affect attitudes? If an unknown electrical impulse causes you to turn your head, you will come up with an explanation “I was looking for something” Role- a set of norms that define how people in a given social position ought to behave Norms- rules for accepted and expected behaviour Role playing studies shows how what is unreal (an artificial role) can evolve into what is real Gender roles- a set of behaviour expectations (norms) for males and females Both women and men will alter their behaviour to meet their interests gender role expectations Ex) either present themselves more home-oriented or more ambitious Foot in the door phenomenon- the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request t ocomply later with a larger request Low-ball technique- a tactic fr getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it Evil and moral acts sometimes results from gradually escalating commitments Action affect our moral attitudes: what we have done, even if it is wrong, we will justify as right We not only stand up for what we believe, we also believe in what we have stood up for Political and social movements may legislate behaviour designed to lead to attitude change on a mass scale Self-preservation theory- assumes that our behaviour aims to create desired impressions Cognitive dissonance- tension that arises when we are simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions Ex) we have (with little justification) acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favouring one alternative despite reasons favouring another DISSONANCE THEORY- attitude change because we feel tension after acting contrary to our attitudes or making diffi
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