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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Group Influence.docx

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Hilary B Bergsieker

Chapter 7: Group Influence Group- two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us” SOCIAL FACILITATION: how are we affected by the presence of others social facilitation- 1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2) current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses owing to the presence of others bikers race faster when in a group than when alone/ simple multiplication done faster/ simple tasks done faster the presence of others diminishes efficiency of learning nonsense syllables, completing a maze, and other complicated tasks enhancing easy strengthens behaviour Others' presence arousal dominant responses impairing difficult behaviour being in a crowd increases these effects, even with personality. Nice people act nicer, unfriendly people are even more disliked when others are close by, we are more likely to notice and join in their laughter or clapping. Crowding has the same effect as being observed by a crowd: enhances arousal, facilitates dominant responses evaluation apprehension- concern for how others are evaluating us mere presence of a person does not facilitate the same response as when it seems a person is evaluating them (blind folded person does not elicit same response as nonblinded)  People perform better when co-acter is slightly superior  Arousal lessens when a high-status group is diluted by adding people whose opinions don’t matter to us  People who worry about others’ evaluations are most affected  Effects are greatest when others are unfamiliar and hard to keep an eye on Self-conscious basketball players analyze their body movements and are more likely to miss Driven by distraction- arousal comes not from presence of another person, but from a non-human distraction (bursts of light). The conflict between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task overloads the cognitive system, causing arousal Zajonc believed mere presence produces some arousal because effect happens with animals, who are not concerned with evaluation. SOCIAL LOAFING: do individuals exert less effort in a group? Social loafing- the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable In tug of war, people pull 18% harder when told they are pulling alone than when they pull in a group Experiment: six people blindfolded in semi-circle with headphones blasting sounds of shouting or clapping (so they could not hear their own or anybody else’s shouting/clapping). When people told they were making noise with the group rather than alone, they produced 1/3 less noise. Free-riders- people who benefit from the group but give little in return EFFORT DECREASES AS GROUP SIZE INCREASES BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF EVALUATION APPREHENSION individual efforst evaluation arousal social facilitation evaluated apprehension Others' presence individual efforts no evaluation pooled and NOT apprehension relaxation social loafing evaluated Assembly line workers produced 16% more product when their individual output was identified, even though they knew their pay would not be affected Social loafing occurs in varied cultures, particularly by assessing agricultural output in formerly communist countries Russian peasants worked on a different farm everyday, with little responsibility for any given plot. Their own privately owned plots occupied 1% of land but produced 27% of crops. Collectivist cultures exhibit less social loafing than individualistic ones, but it still occurs Social loafing is less when people see the task as difficult or others as incompetent or friends DEINDIVIDUATION: when do people lose their sense of self in groups Deindividuation- loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual  Group size o People unidentifiable o Mobs  Physical anonymity o Lessns inhibitions o People delivered electric shock twice as long to women wearing hoods than women who were visable and wearing nametags  When women wore NURSES outfits, however, people became less aggresive o Internet offeres this o People in cars with hoods up more likely to honk than those with hoods down o Children in groups more likely to take more candy when trick-or-treating o Being anonymous makes one less self-conscious and more responsive to cues present in the situation, whether negative (Klan uniforms) or positive (nurses uniforms) Effiect of group immersion and anonymity: identified anonymous Alone in groups Children were more likely to transgress by taking extra Halloween candy when in a group, when anonymous, and especially when both Arousing and distracting activites  Aggressive outbursts by large crowds are often preceded by monor actions that arouse and divert people’s attention o Group shouting, chanting, clapping, or dancing  There is self-reinforcing pleasure in doing impulisive acts while observing others doing it also o If they are doing as we are, they must feel as we do as well Diminished self-awareness  Disconnect between behaviour and attiude  Less restrained, more likely to act without thinking (alchohol)  Those with increased self-awareness show more self-control  In places like japan, mirror or no mirror makes no difference to cheating because people are more self-aware GROUP POLARIZATION – Group produced enhancement of members’ pre-existing tendencies; a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the group  Groups tend to make riski
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